Translated From The Original Latin, And Collated With The Author’s French Version,




Whatever may have been the immediate cause pressing David to pray in the manner he does in this Psalm, fe233 it is plain that his desire is through divine grace to check and bridle his spirit, under injuries of a causeless and unprovoked description, so as not to break out into retaliation and revenge, and return evil for evil. Having attained to the exercise of forbearance, he seeks that God would judge between him and his enemies.

A Psalm of David.

<19E101>Psalm 141:1-4

1. O Jehovah! I have cried unto thee, make haste unto me; give ear unto my voice when I cry unto thee. 2. Let my prayer be directed as incense before thy face; the lifting up of my hands, as fe234 the evening sacrifice. 3. Set a watch, O Jehovah! upon my mouth, keep a guard upon the door of my lips. 4. Incline not my heart to an evil thing, to practice wicked works with men that work iniquity, and that I may not eat of their dainties.


1. O Jehovah! I have cried unto thee. From such an exordium and manner of praying, it is evident that David was laboring under no small trial, as he repeats his requests, and insists upon receiving help. Without venturing to say anything definite upon the point, we would not disapprove of the conjecture that this Psalm was written by David with reference to the persecutions he suffered from Saul. He teaches us by his example to make application immediately to God, and not be tempted, as wicked men are, to renounce prayer, and rely on other resources. He says that he cried to God, not to heaven or earth, to men or to fortune, and other vain objects, which are made mention of, in the first place at least, in such cases by the ungodly. If they do address themselves to God, it is with murmurs and complaints, howling rather than praying.

In the second verse the allusion is evidently to the legal ceremonies. fe235 At that time the prayers of God’s people were according to his own appointment sanctified through the offering up of incense and sacrifices, and David depended upon this promise. FE236 As to the conjecture some have made, that he was at this time an exile, and cut off from the privileges of the religious assembly, nothing certain can be said upon that point; their idea being that there is a tacit antithesis in the verse — that though prevented from continuing with God’s worshippers into the sanctuary, or using incense and sacrifice, he desired God would accept his prayers notwithstanding. But as there seems no reason to adopt this restricted sense, it is enough to understand the general truth, that as these symbols taught the Lord’s people to consider their prayers equally acceptable to God with the sweetest incense, and most excellent sacrifice, David derived confirmation to his faith from the circumstance. Although the view of the fathers was not confined entirely to the external ceremonies, David was bound to avail himself of such helps. As he considered, therefore, that it was not in vain the incense was burned daily on the altar by God’s commandment, and the evening offering presented, he speaks of his prayers in connection with this ceremonial worship. The lifting up of the hands, evidently means prayer, for those who translate tam, masath, a gift, obscure and pervert the meaning of the Psalmist. As the word, which is derived from an, nasa, means lifting up in the Hebrew, the natural inference is, that prayer is meant, in allusion to the outward action practiced in it. And we can easily suppose that David here as elsewhere repeats the same thing twice. As to the reason which has led to the universal practice amongst all nations of lifting up the hand in prayer, I have taken notice of it elsewhere.

3. Set a watch, O Jehovah! upon my mouth. As David was liable to be hurt at the unbridled and unprincipled rage of his enemies, so as to be tempted to act in a manner that might not be justifiable, he prays for divine direction, and not that he might be kept back from manual violence merely, but that his tongue might be restrained from venting reproach, or words of complaint. Even persons of the most self-possessed temper, if unwarrantably injured, will some — times proceed to make retaliation, through their resenting the unbecoming conduct of their enemies. David prays accordingly that his tongue might be restrained by the Lord from uttering any word which was out of joint. Next he seeks that his heart be kept back from every mischievous device that might issue in revenge. The words added — that I may not eat of their delicacies, are to be understood figuratively, as a petition that he might not be tempted by the prosperity which they enjoyed in sin to imitate their conduct. The three things mentioned in the context are to be connected; and it may be advisable to consider each of them more particularly. Nothing being more difficult than for the victims of unjust persecution to bridle their speech, and submit silently and without complaint to injuries, David needed to pray that his mouth might be closed and guarded — that the door of his mouth might be kept shut by God, as one who keeps the gate watches the ingress and egress — hrxn, nitsrah, being the imperative of the verb, rather than a noun. He next subjoins that God would not incline his heart to an evil thing; for rbd, dabar, is here, as in many other places, used to signify a thing. Immediately after he explains himself to mean, that he would not desire to strive with them in wickedness, and thus make himself like his enemies. Had that monk of whom Eusebius makes mention duly reflected upon this resolution of David, he would not have fallen into the silly fallacy of imagining that he had shown himself the perfect scholar by observing silence for a whole term of seven years. Hearing that the regulation of the tongue was a rare virtue, he betook himself to a distant solitude, from which he did not return to his master for seven years; and being asked the cause of his long absence, replied that he had been meditating upon what he had learned from this verse. It would have been proper to have asked him at the same time, whether during the interim he had thought none, as well as spoken none. For the two things stand connected the being silent, and the being free from the charge of evil thoughts. It is very possible that although he observed silence, he had many ungodly thoughts, and these are worse than vain words. We have simply alluded in passing to this foolish notion, as what may convince the reader of the possibility of persons running away with a word torn from its connection, and overlooking the scope of the writer. In committing himself to the guidance of God, both as to thoughts and words, David acknowledges the need of the influence of the Spirit for the regulation of his tongue and of his mind, particularly when tempted to be exasperated by the insolence of opposition. If, on the one hand, the tongue be liable to slip and too fast of utterance, unless continually watched and guarded by God; on the other, there are disorderly affections of an inward kind which require to be restrained. What a busy workshop is the heart of man, and what a host of devices is there manufactured every moment! If God do not watch over our heart and tongue, there will confessedly be no bounds to words and thoughts of a sinful kind, — so rare a gift of the Spirit is moderation in language, while Satan is ever making suggestions which will be readily and easily complied with, unless God prevent. It need not seem absurd to speak of God inclining our hearts to evil, since these are in his hand, to turn them whithersoever he willeth at his pleasure. Not that he himself prompts them to evil desires, but as according to his secret judgments he surrenders and effectually gives over the wicked to Satan’s tyranny, he is properly said to blind and harden them. The blame of their sins rests with men themselves, and the lust which is in them; and, as they are carried out to good or evil by a natural desire, it is not from any external impulse that they incline to what is evil, but spontaneously and of their own corruption. I have read — to work the works of iniquity; others read — to think the thoughts of iniquity. The meaning is the same, and it is needless to insist upon the preference to be given. By ym[nm, manammim, translated delicacies, is meant the satisfaction felt by the ungodly when their sins are connived at through the divine forbearance. While their insolence in such a case becomes more presumptuous, even the Lord’s people are in danger of being deceived by the prosperity they see enjoying, and to take liberties themselves. David had reason therefore to pray for the secret restraints of the Holy Spirit, that he might be kept from feasting on their delicacies; that is, being intoxicated into license or sinful pleasure through anything debasing, flattering, or agreeable in outward circumstances. FE237

<19E105>Psalm 141:5-7

5. Let the righteous smite me, a kindness; and let him chastise. me, a precious oil, it shall not break my head: for yet my prayer also shall be in their calamities. 6. Their judges have been thrown down upon stony places; and they shall hear my words, for they are sweet. 7. As one who breaketh and cutteth  fe238 on the earth, our bones have been, scattered at the mouth of the grave.


5. Let the righteous smite me, etc. While Satan tempts the wicked by his allurements, they, at the same time, deceive one another by flattery, which leads David to declare, that he would much rather be awakened to his duty by the severe rod of reproof, than be seduced through pleasing falsehoods. Among those who hold religion in contempt no reproof is administered to one who has contracted any sin, and, therefore, if we have any concern for our spiritual safety we will connect ourselves with good men, who restore such as have fallen by upright admonition, and bring back those who have erred to the right way. It is not agreeable to corrupt nature to be reproved when we sin, but, David had brought himself to that degree of docility and self-denial which led him to consider no reproof distasteful which he knew to proceed from the spirit of kindness. As there is some ambiguity in the words, we may see to ascertain the proper meaning of them. The noun dsj, chesed, can very well be resolved into the adverb — the righteous shall smite me mercifully, or in mercy, supplying the preposition. And this is the meaning adopted by most interpreters, that David reckoned as the best ointment such reproofs as breathed charity and kindness, or proceeded from a kind and dispassionate spirit. Should this reading be preferred it is to be remembered, that David refers, not so much to the outward manner in which the reproof is to be administered, as to the frame of the heart. However how good men may be, and whatever severity of language they may employ in admonishing those who have erred, they are still actuated by the force of brotherly affection. My, the very severity is, in fact, occasioned by their holy anxiety and fear of their brother’s safety. The righteous act mercifully under all this apparent sharpness and severity — as the wicked, on the other hand, act cruelly who censure only in a very gentle manner. By noticing this feature in reproof, David besides would distinguish that kind of it which takes its rise in sincere affection, from invectives which proceed from hatred or private animosity, as Solomon says. (<201012>Proverbs 10:12.) The other rendering of the words, however, which I have adopted, is equally suitable

Let the righteous censure me, it shall be mercy, or, I will reckon it a benefit, let him reprove me, this shall be precious ointment that will not hurt my head.

The last clause some interpret in another way — the oil of the head let it not break my head, that is, let not the wicked seduce me to destruction by their pleasing flatteries. FE239 By the oil they understand the pernicious adulations by which the wicked would ruin us, and plunge us deeper and deeper in destruction, while they seem to administer pleasure. This would make the passage convey a fuller meaning, That while David was pliable and yielding in the matter of reproof, he fled from flattery as from the fatal songs of the Sirens. However sweet praise may be to the taste at first, every one who lends an ear to flattery, drinks in a poison which will presently diffuse itself through the whole heart. Let us learn by David’s example to reject all flatteries, prone as we are naturally to receive them, and to renounce waywardness and obstinacy, lest we should put away from us those corrections which are wholesome remedies for our vices. For such is the infatuated love men have to their own destruction, that even when forced to condemn themselves they wish to have the approbation of the world. And why? that by superinducing torpor of conscience, they may, by their own spontaneous act, devote themselves to ruin.

For yet my prayer, etc. Three explanations of this clause have been suggested. According to some the meaning of it is, that, as we are ever ready to be corrupted by bad example, David here prays, that he might not decline to their evils, or the evils which they practiced. The second sense assigned is, that David, recognizing their mischievous devices, prays that he may be kept by the Lord from their wickedness. The third sense, that recognizing them as reduced to desperate calamities, he prays that the just vengeance of God might be executed upon them according to their deserts. The very opposite meaning might seem the more suitable, that David was not prevented by their obstinacy in wickedness from praying for their welfare. For there is the adverb yet emphatically inserted. Or, what if David is to be considered as predicting their unfortunate end, intimating, that though the ungodly now riot in excess, they shall shortly be arrested, and that before long his compassion would be exercised towards them? The way in which the words stand connected favors this view; for he does not say — yet my prayer shall be in their calamities, but rather separately, “yet, or, yet a little while, and then my power shall be in their calamities.” As David was in danger of being tempted to yield to similarly vain courses with them, he very properly suggests a sustaining motive to his soul, why he should retain his integrity, that erelong they would be overtaken with so awful a destruction as to entreat compassion from him and others of the people of God.

6. Their judges have been thrown down upon stony places. FE240 Almost all interpreters agree, that the tense of the verb should be changed from the preterit to the future, and then resolve it into the optative — let them be thrown down. It appears to me that the sense of David would be made very plain by reading, When their judges have been cast down from the rock, or upon stony places, they shall hear my words. David, on perceiving the rage which the common people expressed towards him, as carried away through the influence of error and misrepresentation, lays the blame upon their leaders. When their power should be taken away, he is confident that the simple, who had been misled, would be brought to a right mind. Casting from the rocks, or upon stony places, is a metaphorical expression in reference to the high and dignified position in which they were placed. Although not without blame in following evil counselors so as to persecute unjustly a good and godly man, yet he had reason to entertain more hope of their repentance, that they would return to consideration when God executed vengeance upon those who were at their head. We see how ready the common people are to judge by impulse rather than deliberation, and to be hurried into most condemnable proceedings by blind prejudice, while afterwards upon being admonished they retrace their steps with equal precipitation. So that, granting cruelty must always be sinful, and simplicity no excuse, we are taught by David’s example to pray that sound counsel may be sent to such as are in error, with a view to enabling them to hear the truth and the right with patience.

7. As one who breaketh, etc. Here David complains that his enemies were not satisfied with inflicting upon him one death death of a common description but must first mangle him, and those associated with him, and then cast them into the grave. The common robber on the highway throws the body of his murdered victim whole into the ditch; David tells us, that he and those with him were treated more barbarously, their Bones being dispersed, as one cleaves wood or stones into fragments, or digs the earth. From this it appears, that David, like Paul, (<470109>2 Corinthians 1:9,) was delivered from deaths oft; fe241 and we may learn the duty of continuing to cherish hope of life and deliverance even when the expression may apply to us, that our bones have been broken and scattered.

<19E108>Psalm 141:8-10

8. Because to thee, O Jehovah! My Lord, are my eyes; in thee have I hoped: leave mot my soul destitute. 9. Keep we from the hands of the snare which they have spread for me, from the nets of the workers of iniquity. 10. Let the wicked fall together into his nets; I always shall pass by. FE242


8. Because to thee, O Jehovah! etc. If we reflect upon what was comprehended under the previous figure of their bones being broken, his praying in such circumstances is just as if the torn fragments of a mangled corpse should cry unto God. This may give us some idea of the heroical courage of David, who could continue to direct his eyes to God even under such overwhelming difficulties; this being the very part faith ought to discharge, in making us collected and composed when our senses would otherwise be confounded. FE243 Great a miracle as it would have been for God to have preserved them in life, when their bones were scattered abroad, it was a double miracle to support their minds in the firm persuasion of their not perishing.

9. Keep me, etc. He owns himself to be shut up in the snares of his enemies, unless set free by a higher hand. In praying to God under the straits to which he was reduced, he proves what a high estimate he formed of what his mercy could effect, as elsewhere he says, that the issues from death belong to him. (<196820>Psalm 68:20.) God often delays interposing, that the deliverance may be the more signal; and afterwards he makes the devices of the wicked to recoil upon their own heads. It seems absurd to refer the pronoun his to Saul, as if the sense were that Doeg and others of that character would fall into the snares of Saul. It would seem to be God who is intended. First, he had spoken of being preserved by God from the toils of the wicked, and now to these snares which the wicked spread for the upright he opposes the snares with which God catches the crafty in their own devices. And as the number of his enemies was great, he uses the expression, let them fall together, for escape would have been impossible, had he not been persuaded that it was easy for God to overthrow any combined force and array of men. What follows admits of two meanings. Many read, I shall always pass. But we may suppose order of the words changed and read, until I pass. It prays that his enemies should be held in the snare till he got off safe,


When Saul came into the cave where David lay concealed, this saint of God might upon such an occurrence have been either thrown into consternation, or led by his alarm into some unwarrantable step, it being common for persons in despair either to be prostrated with dismay, or driven into frenzy. But it appears from this Psalm that David retained his composure, relying with assured confidence upon God, and resigning himself to vows and prayers instead of taking any unauthorized steps.

A Prayer of David, giving instruction when he was in the cave. FE244

<19E201>Psalm 142:1-4

1. I cried to Jehovah with my voice, with my voice to Jehovah I made supplication. 2. I pour out my meditation before his face: I tell my affliction before his face. 3. When my spirit was perplexed within me, and thou knewest my path: in the way wherein I walked they laid a snare for me. 4. On looking to the right hand, and perceiving, none would know me, refuge failed me, there was none seeking after my soul.


1. I cried fe245 to Jehovah, etc. It showed singular presence of mind in David that he was not paralyzed with fear, or that he did not in a paroxysm of fury take vengeance upon his enemy, as he easily might have done; and that he was not actuated by despair to take away his life, but composedly addressed himself to the exercise of prayer. There was good reason why the title should have been affixed to the Psalm to note this circumstance, and David had good grounds for mentioning how he commended himself to God. Surrounded by the army of Saul, and hemmed in by destruction on every side, how was it possible for him to have spared so implacable an enemy, had he not been fortified against the strongest temptations by prayer? The repetition he makes use of indicates his having prayed with earnestness, so as to be impervious to every assault of temptation.

He tells us still more clearly in the next verse that he disburdened his ears unto God. To pour out one’s thoughts and tell over his afflictions implies the reverse of those perplexing anxieties which men brood over inwardly to their own distress, and by which they torture themselves, and are chafed by their afflictions rather than led to God; or it implies the reverse of those frantic exclamations to which others give utterance who find no comfort in the superintending providence and care of God. In short, we are left to infer that while he did not give way before men to loud and senseless lamentations, neither did he suffer himself to be tormented with inward and suppressed cares, but made known his grief’s with unsuspecting confidence to the Lord.

3. When, my spirit, etc. Though he owns here that he felt anxiety, yet he confirms what he had said as to the constancy of his faith. The figure which he uses of his spirit being perplexed, fe246 aptly represents the state of the mind in alternating between various resolutions when there was no apparent outgate from danger, and increasing its distress by resorting to all kinds of devices. He adds, that though there was no apparent way of safety, God knew from the beginning in what way his deliverance should be effected. Others put a different meaning upon this clause, thou knowest my way, as if David asserted God to have been witness of his integrity, but the other is the more correct, that God knew the way to deliver him, while his own mind was distracted by a variety of thoughts, and yet could not conceive any mode of extrication. The words teach us, when we have tried every remedy and know not what to do, to rest satisfied with the conviction that God is acquainted with our afflictions, and condescends to care for us, as Abraham said —

“The Lord will provide.” (<012208>Genesis 22:8.)

4. On looking to the right hand, fe247 etc., He shows that there was good cause for the dreadful sufferings he experienced, since no human aid or comfort was to be expected, and destruction seemed inevitable. When he speaks of having looked and yet not perceived a friend amongst men, he does not mean that he had turned his thoughts to earthly helps in forgetfulness of God, but that he had made such inquiry as was warrantable after one on the earth who might assist him. Had any person of the kind presented himself, he would no doubt have recognized him as an instrument in the hand of God’s mercy, but it was God’s purpose that he should be abandoned of all assistance from man, and that his deliverance from destruction should thus appear more extraordinary. In the expression, none seeking after my soul, the verb to seek after is used in a good sense, for being solicitous about any man’s welfare or safety.

<19E205>Psalm 142:5-7

5. I cried unto thee, O Jehovah! I said thou art my hope and my portion in the land of the living. 6. Attend unto my cry, for I labor very much under affliction: deliver me from my persecutors, for they are stronger than I. 7. Rescue my soul from prison, that I may praise thy name; the righteous shall crown me, for thou wilt recompense me.


5. I cried unto thee, O Jehovah! With a view to hasten God’s interposition, David complains of the low estate he was reduced to, and of his extremity; the term cry denoting vehemence, as I have elsewhere noticed. He speaks of deliverance as being plainly needed, since he was now held a prisoner. By prison some suppose he alludes to the cave where he was lodged, but this is too restricted a meaning. The subsequent clause, the righteous shall compass me, is translated differently by some, they shall wait me. I have retained the true and natural sense. I grant that it is taken figuratively for surrounding, intimating that he would be a spectacle to all, the eyes of men being attracted by such a singular case of deliverance. If any consider the words not to be figurative, the sense will be, That the righteous would not only congratulate him, but place a crown upon his head in token of victory. Some explain the passage, They will assemble to congratulate me, and will stand round me on every side like a crown. As the words literally read, they will crown upon me, some supply another pronoun, and give this sense, that the righteous would construe the mercy bestowed upon David as a glory conferred upon themselves; for when God delivers any of his children he holds out the prospect of deliverance to the rest, and, as it were, gifts them with a crown. The sense which I have adopted is the simplest, however, That the mercy vouchsafed would be shown conspicuously to all as in a theater, proving a signal example to the righteous for establishment of their faith. The verb lmg, gamal, in the Hebrew, is of a more general signification than to repay, and means to confer a benefit, as I have shown elsewhere.


Although the enemies with whom David had to contend were wicked, and their persecution as unjust as it was cruel, David recognized the just judgment of God in it all, and seeks to conciliate his favor by humbly supplicating pardon. Having complained of the cruelty of his enemies, and declared that amidst all his affliction he still remembered God, he prays for restoration, and the guidance of God’s Spirit, that the remainder of his life might be devoted to his fear.

A Psalm of David. FE248

<19E301>Psalm 143:1-3

1. Hear my prayer, O Jehovah! give ear to my supplication, in thy truth answer me, in thy righteousness. 2. And enter not into judgment with thy servant, for in thy sight shall no man living be justified. 3. For the enemy hath persecuted my soul; he hath prostrated my life on the ground: he hath set me in dark places, as the dead of an age.


1. Hear my prayer, O Jehovah! It is evident that the oppression of his enemies must have been extreme, when David laments his case in such earnest and pathetic terms. The introductory words show that the grief he felt was great. His reason for speaking of the justice and faithfulness of God in connection we have shown elsewhere. Under the term justice, or righteousness, we are not to suppose that he speaks of merit, or hire, as some ignorantly imagine, but of that goodness of God which leads him to defend his people. To the same effect does he speak of God’s truth or faithfulness; for the best proof he can give of his faithfulness is in not forsaking those whom he has promised to help. In helping his people he shows himself to be a just and true God, both in not frustrating their expectation, and in so far as he shows in this extension of mercy what his nature is, that David very properly encourages himself in prayer by making mention of both.

2. And enter not into judgment, fe249 etc. I have hinted already why he proceeds to pray for pardon. When overtaken by adversity, we are ever to conclude that it is a rod of correction sent by God to stir us up to pray. Although he is far from taking pleasure in our trials, it is certain that our sins are the cause of his dealing towards us with this severity. While those to whom David was opposed were wicked men, and he was perfectly conscious of the rectitude of his cause as regarded them, he freely acknowledged his sin before God as a condemned suppliant. We are to hold this as a general rule in seeking to conciliate God, that we must pray for the pardon of our sins. If David found refuge nowhere else than in prayer for pardon, who is there amongst us who would presume to come before God trusting in his own righteousness and integrity? Nor does David here merely set an example before God’s people how they ought to pray, but declares that there is none amongst men who could be just before God were he called to plead his cause. The passage is one fraught with much instruction, teaching us, as I have just hinted, that God can only show favor to us in our approaches by throwing aside the character of a judge, and reconciling us to himself in a gratuitous remission of our sins. All human righteousnesses, accordingly, go for nothing, when we come to his tribunal. This is a truth which is universally acknowledged in words, but which very few are seriously impressed with. As there is an indulgence which is mutually extended to one another amongst men, they all come confidently before God for judgment, as if it were as easy to satisfy him as to gain man’s approval. In order to obtain a proper view of the whole matter, we are first to note what is meant by being justified. The passage before us clearly proves that the man who is justified, is he who is judged and reckoned just before God, or whom the heavenly Judge himself acquits as innocent. Now, in denying that any amongst men can claim this innocence, David intimates that any righteousness which the saints have is not perfect enough to abide God’s scrutiny, and thus he declares that all are guilty before God, and can only be absolved in the way of acknowledging they might justly be condemned. Had perfection been a thing to be found in the world, he certainly of all others was the man who might justly have boasted of it; and the righteousness of Abraham and the holy fathers was not unknown to him; but he spares neither them nor himself, but lays it down as the one universal rule of conciliating God, that we must cast ourselves upon his mercy. This may give us some idea of the satanic infatuation which has taken hold of those who speak so much of perfection in holiness, with a view to supersede remission of sins. Such a degree of pride could never be evinced by them, were they not secretly influenced by a brutish contempt of God. They speak in high and magnificent terms of regeneration, as if the whole kingdom of Christ consisted in purity of life. But in doing away with the principal blessing of the everlasting covenant gratuitous reconciliation which God’s people are commanded to seek daily, and in puffing up both themselves and others with a vain pride, they show what spirit they are of. Let us hold them in detestation, since they scruple not to put open contempt upon God. This of itself, however, which we have stated, is not enough; for the Papists themselves acknowledge that were God to enter upon an examination of men’s lives as a judge, all would lie obnoxious to just condemnation. And in this respect they are sounder, more moderate and sober, than those Cyclopses and monsters in heresy of whom we have just spoken. But though not arrogating to themselves righteousness in the whole extent of it, they show, by obtruding their merits and satisfactions, that they are very far from following the example of David. They are always ready to acknowledge some defect in their works, and so, in seeking God’s favor, they plead for the assistance of his mercy. But there is nothing intermediate between these two things, which are represented in Scripture as opposites being justified by faith and justified by works. It is absurd for the Papists to invent a third species of righteousness, which is partly wrought out by works of their own, and partly imputed to them by God in his mercy. Without all doubt, when he affirmed that no man could stand before God were his works brought to judgment, David had no idea of this complex or twofold righteousness, but would shut us up at once to the conclusion that God is only favorable upon the ground of his mercy, since any reputed righteousness of man has no significance before him.

3. For the enemy hath persecuted my soul. Having acknowledged that he only suffered the just punishment of his sins, David comes now to speak of his enemies; for to have begun by speaking of them would have been a preposterous order. Their cruelty was shown in their not resting satisfied but with the destruction of one who was a saint of God; he declares that he must even now perish unless God should help him speedily. The comparison is not merely to a dead man, but a putrid corpse; for by the dead of an age fe250 are meant those who have been long removed from the world. Such language intimates that he not only trusted in God as he who could heal him of a deadly disease, but considered that though his life should be buried, as it were, and long out of mind, God could raise it again, and restore his very ashes.

<19E304>Psalm 143:4-7

4. And my spirit is perplexed within me, my heart within me is astonished. 5. I remembered the days of old, I meditated upon all thy works; I meditated upon the work of thy hands. 6. I spread out my hands to thee, my soul is to thee as the earth without water. FE251 Selah. 7. Hasten, answer me, O Jehovah! my spirit faileth: hide not thy face from me, because I shall be like to those descending into the pit.


4. And my spirit, etc. Hitherto he has spoken of the troubles that were without, now he acknowledges the feebleness of his spirits, from which it is evident that his strength, vas not like that of the rock, imperturbable or without feeling, but that, while overwhelmed with grief as to the feeling of the flesh, he owed his support entirely to faith and the grace of the Spirit,. We are taught by his example not to throw up the conflict in despair, however much we may be weakened, and even exanimated by afflictions, as God will enable us to surmount them, if we only rise to him with our hearts amidst all our anxieties.

In the next verse David mentions that he had diligently sought means whereby to mitigate his grief. It is not to be wondered at, that many who spontaneously give themselves up to inaction, should sink under their trials, not using means to invigorate themselves by calling to remembrance the grace of God. Sometimes, it is true, our trials are only more keenly felt when we recall the former kindness which God may have shown to us, the comparison tending to awaken our feelings, and render them more acute; but David proposed a different end than this to himself, and gathered confidence from the past mercies of God. The very best method in order to obtain relief in trouble, when we are about to faint under it, is to call to mind the former loving-kindness of the Lord. Nor does David mean such as he had experienced from childhood, as some have thought, adopting in my judgment too restricted a sense; for the word dq, kedem, has a more extensive signification. I have no doubt, therefore, that he includes past history, as well as his own personal experience, it being easy to discover proofs there of God’s continued goodness to his people. We should ourselves learn by his example, in reflecting upon personal favors received from God, to remember also how often he has assisted those that served him, and improve the truth for our own benefit. Should this not immediately or at once abate the bitterness of our grief, yet the advantage of it will afterwards appear. In the passage before us, David complains that he did not get relief from his anxieties and cares from this consolatory source, but he prosecuted his meditations in expectation of finding the good result in due time. The verb hw, suach, I have elsewhere observed, may mean either to declare with the tongue, or to revolve in the mind. Some accordingly read — “I have discoursed of thy works.” But as the verb hgh, hagah, means to meditate, I consider that the Psalmist repeats the same thing twice, and this in token of earnestness. We will often upon a slight exercise of the thoughts upon God’s works, start aside from them almost immediately; nor is it matter of surprise, that, in this case, there results no solid comfort. That our knowledge may be abiding we must call in the aid of constant attention.

6. I have stretched forth my hands to thee. Here appears the good effect of meditation, that it stirred David up to pray; for if we reflect seriously upon the acting’s of God towards his people, and towards ourselves in our own experience, this will necessarily lead out our minds to seek after him, under the alluring influence of his goodness. Prayer, indeed, springs from faith; but as practical proofs of the favor and mercy confirm this faith, they are means evidently fitted for dissipating languor. He makes use of a striking figure to set forth the ardor of his affection, comparing his soul to the parched earth. In great heats we see that the earth is cleft, and opens, as it were, its mouth to heaven for moisture. David therefore intimates, he drew near to God with vehement desire, as if the very sap of life failed him, as he shows more fully in the verse which follows. In this he gives another proof of his extraordinary faith. Feeling himself weak, and ready to sink into the very grave, he does not vacillate between this and the other hope of relief, but fixes his sole dependence upon God. And heavy as the struggle was that he underwent with his own felt weakness, the fainting of spirit he speaks of was a better stimulant to prayer than any stoical obstinacy he might have shown in suppressing fear, grief, or anxiety. We must not overlook the fact, how in order to induce himself to depend exclusively upon God, he dismisses all other hopes from his mind, and makes a chariot to himself of the extreme necessity of his case, in which he ascends upwards to God.

<19E308>Psalm 143:8-12

8. Cause me to hear thy loving-kindness in the morning, for in thee have I hoped; show me the way in which I may walk, for I have lifted up my soul to thee. 9. Deliver me, O Jehovah! from my enemies; I have hidden with thee. 10. Teach me that I may do thy will, for thou art my God; let thy good Spirit lead me into the right land. 11. For thy name’s sake, O Lord! thou wilt quicken me: in thy righteousness bring my soul out of trouble. 12. And in thy mercy thou wilt scatter my enemies, and thou wilt destroy FE252 all them that afflict my soul, for I am thy servant.


8. Cause me to hear thy loving-kindness. In this verse he again prays that God would show him his favor visibly and effectually. The expression cause me to hear, may seem not very proper, as the goodness of God is rather felt than heard; but as the mere perception of God’s benefits, without a believing apprehension and improvement of them, would do us little good, David very properly begins with hearing. We see how wicked men riot in the abundance of them, while yet they have no sense of the Lord’s goodness, through want of attention to the word, and a believing apprehension of God as a father. The adverb in the morning some confine to a reference to sacrifices — which is a meager interpretation — in allusion to the well-known fact that sacrifices used to be offered twice, in the morning and in the evening. Others give a more strained sense, understanding that when God deals in a more favorable way with his people, he is said to form a new day. FE253 Others consider it to be a metaphor for a prosperous and happy condition, as an afflicted and calamitous time is often denoted by darkness. I wonder that there should be such a search after extraneous meanings for this word, by which he is simply to be considered as repeating his former prayer to God — make haste. In the morning means the same with speedily or seasonably. He founds a reason here, as elsewhere, upon his having hoped in God, this being something by which, in a sense, we lay God under obligation to us, for in making a liberal offer of himself to us, and promising to sustain the relationship of a father, he gives what men would call a pledge. This, accordingly, is a species of obligation. But so far is this from implying any worthiness or merit on our part, that the hope we entertain rather proves our nothingness and helplessness. His prayer that a way might be opened up for him to walk in, refers to the anxieties which perplexed him. He intimates that he was dismayed, and brought to a stand, unable to move a step, if God did not open a way, by his divine power; that all the desires of his soul terminated upon him; and that he looked for counsel from him to procure relief in his perplexity.

9. Deliver me, O Jehovah! from my enemies. This prayer is to the same effect, his enemies being so earnestly bent upon his destruction as to leave no outgate for him. The verb ytysk, chisithi, some render to hope: the proper meaning is to cover, and I am unwilling to depart from it. The explanation some give is, that David upon perceiving the imminent danger to which he was exposed, betook himself to the covert of God’s shadow, and concealed himself under the protection of it. This seems a very natural rendering, at least I prefer it to another which has recommended itself to some as being ingenious that David, instead of having recourse to various quarters for relief, was satisfied to have God cognizant of his case, and called upon him in a hidden manner and apart.

10. Teach me that I may do thy will. He now rises to something higher, praying not merely for deliverance from outward troubles, but, what is of still greater importance, for the guidance of God’s Spirit, that he might not decline to the right hand or to the left, but be kept in the path of rectitude. This is a request which should never be forgotten when temptations assail us with great severity, as it is peculiarly difficult to submit to God without resorting to unwarrantable methods of relief. As anxiety, fear, disease, languor, or pain, often tempt persons to particular steps, David’s example should bad us to pray for divine restraint, and that we may not be hurried, through impulses of feeling, into unjustifiable courses. We are to mark carefully his way of expressing himself, for what he asks is not simply to be taught what the will of God is, but to be taught and brought to the observance, and doing of it. The former kind of teaching is of less avail, as upon God’s showing us our duty we by no means necessarily follow it, and it is necessary that he should draw out our affections to himself. God therefore must be master and teacher to us not only in the dead letter, but by the inward motions of his Spirit; indeed there are three ways in which he acts the part of our teacher, instructing us by his word, enlightening our minds by the Spirit, and engraving instruction upon our hearts, so as to bring us observe it with a true and cordial consent. The mere hearing of the word would serve no purpose, nor is it enough that we understand it; there must be besides the willing’ obedience of the heart. Nor does he merely say, Teach me that I may be capable of doing, as the deluded Papists imagine that the grace of God does no more than make us flexible to what is good, but he seeks something to be actually and presently done.

He insists upon the same thing in the next clause, when he says, Let thy good Spirit lead me, etc., for he desires the guidance of the Spirit not merely as he enlightens our minds, but as he effectually influences the consent of our hearts, and as it were leads us by the hand. The passage in its connection warns us of the necessity of being sedulously on our guard against yielding to inordinate passions in any contests we may have with wicked persons, and as we have no sufficient wisdom or power of our own by which to check and restrain these passions, that we should always seek the guidance of God’s Spirit, to keep them in moderation. More generally, the passage teaches us what we are to think of free will; for David here denies the will to have the power of judging rightly, till our hearts be formed to a holy obedience by the Spirit of God. The term leading, which I have already adverted to, proves also that David did not hold that middle species of grace which Papists talk so much about, and which leaves man in a state of suspension or indecision, but asserts something much more effectual, agreeably to what Paul says, (<503813>Philippians 2:13,) that

“it is God who works in us both to will and to do
of his good pleasure.”

By the words right hand, I understand, figuratively, uprightness; David’s meaning being, that we are drawn into error whenever we decline from what is agreeable to the will of God. The term Spirit is tacitly opposed to that corruption which is natural to us; what he says being tantamount to this, that all men’s thoughts are polluted and perverted, till reduced to right rule by the grace of the Spirit. It follows that nothing which is dictated by the judgment of the flesh is good or sound. I grant that wicked men are led away by an evil spirit sent from God, for he executes his judgments by the agency of devils, fe254 (<091614>1 Samuel 16:14;) but when David in this place speaks of God’s good Spirit, I do not imagine that he has any such strained allusion, but rather that he takes here to himself the charge of corruption, and assigns the praise of whatever is good, upright, or true, to the Spirit of God. When he says, Because thou art my God, he shows that his confidence of obtaining his request was founded entirely upon the free favor and promises of God. It is not a matter lying within our own power to make him our God, but it rests with his free preventing grace.

11. For thy name’s sake, O Jehovah! etc. By this expression he makes it still more clear that it was entirely of God’s free mercy that he looked for deliverance; for, had he brought forward anything of his own, the cause would not have been in God, and only in God. He is said to help us for his own name’s sake, when, although he discovers nothing in us to conciliate his favor, he is induced to interpose of his mere goodness. To the same effect is the term righteousness; for God, as I have said elsewhere, has made the deliverance of his people a means of illustrating his righteousness. He at the same time repeats what he had said as to the extraordinary extent of his afflictions: in seeking to be quickened or made alive, he declares himself to be exanimated, and that he must remain under the power of death, if the God who has the issues of life did not recover him by a species of resurrection.

12. And in thy mercy, etc. In this verse he repeats for the fifth or sixth time that he looked for life only of God’s free mercy. Whatever severity may appear on the part of God when he destroys the wicked, David affirms that the vengeance taken upon them would be a proof of fatherly mercy to him. Indeed these two things often meet together — the severity and the goodness of God; for in stretching out his hand to deliver his own people, he directs the thunder of his indignation against their enemies. In short, he comes forth armed for the deliverance of his people, as he says in Isaiah,

“The day of vengeance is in mine heart,
and this is the year of my redemption.” (<236304>Isaiah 63:4.)

In calling himself The servant of God, he by no means boasts of his services, but rather commends the grace of God, to whom he owed this privilege. This is not an honor to be got by our own struggles or exertions — to be reckoned among God’s servants; it depends upon his free choice, by which he condescends before we are born to take us into the number and rank of his followers, as David elsewhere declares still more explicitly

“I am thy servant, truly I am thy servant,
and the son of thine handmaid.” (<19B616>Psalm 116:16.)

This is equivalent to making himself God’s client, and committing his life to his protection.


This Psalm contains a mixture of praise trod prayer; for David, while he extols in very high terms the great mercies which God had bestowed upon him, is led at the same time, either from a consideration of the many trials to be met with in the whole course of human life, or from the connection he still had with wicked men, to pray that God would continue to show this favor to the end. There is this difference between it and Psalm 18, fe255 that the latter is triumphant throughout, the kingdom having been thoroughly subdued, and affairs going forward prosperously, whereas in the present he mixes up one or two things which are indicative of fear and anxiety, there being some remaining enemies to cause him apprehension. FE256

A Psalm of David.

<19E401>Psalm 144:1-4

1. Blessed be Jehovah, my strength, who teaches my hands for battle, my fingers for war. 2. My goodness, and my munition, my citadel, and my deliverer, my shield, and in him I have hoped, who subdues my people under me. 3. O Jehovah ! what is man that thou acknowledgest him? the son of man that thou thinkest of him? 4. Man is like to vanity: his deeds are as a shadow passing away.


1. Blessed be Jehovah, my strength. FE257 It is very evident that David, since he celebrates the favor of God in such high terms, had not only obtained the kingdom, but gained signal victories. When he calls God his strength, he acknowledges that any courage he had was given him from above, not only because he had been made from a country shepherd a mighty warrior, but because the constancy and perseverance he had shown was signally a gift from God. This term answers better than were we to translate it rock; for, by way of explanation, he adds immediately afterwards, that he had been formed under God’s teaching for war. The words certainly imply an acknowledgment, that though of a warlike spirit, he was not born for warlike enterprises but needed to undergo a change. What kind of a commencement, for example, did he show in the case of Goliah? That attempt would have been preposterous on any other supposition than his being upheld by secret divine support, so as to be independent of mere human help. (<091740>1 Samuel 17:40.)

2. My goodness, etc. This way of using the word in a passive sense, as in the Hebrew, sounds harsh in Latin; just as elsewhere (<191850>Psalm 18:50) he calls himself “God’s king,” not in the sense of his having dominion over God, but being made and appointed king by him. Having experienced God’s kindness in so many ways, he calls him “his goodness,” meaning that whatever good he possessed flowed from him. The accumulation of terms, one upon another, which follows, may appear unnecessary, yet it tends greatly to strengthen faith. We know how unstable men’s minds are, and especially how soon faith wavers, when they are assailed by some trial of more than usual severity. It is not enough, if God would sustain us under such weakness, to promise us his help in individual or single expressions; and, even however many aids he supplies us with, we are subject to very great vacillations, and a forgetfulness of his mercy creeps in upon us which almost overwhelms our minds. We are to remember that it is not merely in token of his gratitude that David heaps together so many terms in declaring the goodness of God, but to fortify God’s people against all attacks of the world, and of the evil one. He had a reason for reckoning it among the chiefest of God’s mercies, that he controlled the people under his government. For ym[, ami, my people, some read, ym[, amim, peoples; fe258 and it is surprising they should prefer such a forced rendering, as David means simply that the settled state of the kingdom was owing not to any counsel, valor, or authority of his own, but to God’s secret favor. The verb ddr, radad, is used appropriately, signifying to spread out. The idea some have, that by a people spread out is meant a people set down at ease in a prosperous and happy condition, is farfetched. I have as great objections to the idea of others, that he means a people laid prostrate, so as that they may be trodden under foot; for a violent domination like this would not have been desirable over the chosen people, and sacred inheritance of the Lord. When a people yields a cordial and willing obedience to the laws, all subordinating themselves to their own place peaceably, this signally proves the divine blessing. And in such a settlement as this, where there is no turbulence, nor confusion, the people are appropriately represented, according to what we have said above, as being spread out. David accordingly having ascribed the victories lie had gained over foreign enemies to God, thanks him at the same time for the settled state of the kingdom. Raised indeed as he was from an obscure station, and exposed to hatred from calumnious charges, it was scarcely to have been believer[that he would ever obtain a peaceable reign. The people had suddenly and beyond expectation submitted to him, and so surprising a change was eminently God’s work.

3. O Jehovah! what is man, etc. He amplifies the goodness shown by God by instituting a comparison. Having declared how singularly he had been dealt with, he turns his eyes inward, and asks, “Who am I, that God should show me such condescension? “ He speaks of man in general; only the circumstance is noticeable that he commends the mercy of God, by considering his lowly and abject condition. In other places he mentions grounds of humiliation of a more personal or private nature, — here he confines himself to what has reference to our common nature; and though even in discussing the nature of man there are other reasons he might have specified why he is unworthy of the regard and love of God, he briefly adverts to his being like the smoke, and as a shadow. FE259 We are left to infer that the riches of the divine goodness are extended to objects altogether unworthy in themselves. We are warned, when apt at any time to forget ourselves, and think we are something when we are nothing, that the simple fact of the shortness of our life should put down all arrogance and pride. The Scriptures, in speaking of the frailty of man, comprehend whatever is necessarily connected with it. And, indeed, if our life vanish in a moment, what is there stable about us? We taught this truth also that we cannot properly estimate the divine goodness, unless we take into consideration what we are as to our condition, as we can only ascribe to God what is due unto him, by acknowledging that his goodness is bestowed upon undeserving creatures. The reader may seek for further information upon this point in the eighth Psalm, where nearly the same truth is insisted upon.

<19E405>Psalm 144:5-8

5. O Jehovah! bow thy heavens, fe260 and descend: fe261 touch the mountains, and they shall smoke. 6. Thunder forth thunderings, and scatter them; fe262 shoot out thine arrows, and destroy them. 7. Send thy hand from above, rid me and deliver me out of great waters, from the hand of the sons of the stranger. 8. For their mouth hath spoken falsehood; and their right hand is a right hand of deceit.


5. O Jehovah! bow thy heavens. After extolling, as was due, the great goodness of God, he requests him to furnish such help for the preservation of the kingdom as was necessary in the present exigency. As formerly we saw that he had gloried in God with a heroical courage, so here he makes use of the same lofty terms in his prayers, That he would bow the heavens — that he would make the mountains to smoke — disturb the air with thunderings — and shoot forth arrows; forms of speech by which, doubtless, he would put away from him all the obstacles which stand between us and a believing apprehension of the omnipotence of God, and from which we find it so difficult to emerge. He employs almost the same phraseology in the eighteenth Psalm, but it is in praising God for help already extended, and to signify that he had been preserved from above in a wonderful and unusual manner. For although such signs as he mentions might not always occur when God interposed in his behalf, he had good ground to celebrate what had happened to him of an unexpected kind, by reference to extraordinary phenomena. In the passage before us his purpose is different. Threatened by destruction of various kinds, which might overwhelm his mind with despair, he would realize the wonderful power of God, before which all obstacles of a worldly kind must necessarily give way. We may be certain at least that he indulged in this figurative phraseology for a good reason, that he might not confine deliverance to human remedies; for nothing could be more preposterous at such a time than to measure divine power by ordinary rules.

7. Send thy hand, etc. In one word we are now made to see what was meant by the figures formerly used — that in the absence of all earthly help, God would put forth his hand from above, the greatness of the exigency making extraordinary help necessary. Accordingly he compares his enemies to great and deep waters. He calls them strangers, not in respect of generic origin, but character and disposition. It were a mistake to refer the term to the uncircumcision, for David rather animadverts upon degenerate Jews who gloried in the flesh; and shortly afterwards he hints that he had to do with internal foes rather than a foreign enemy, who would openly assault him with violence and arms. By the right hand of falsehood some understand rash attempts, which David hoped would be frustrated. Others limit the phrase to the solemn ceremony of taking an oath, as if he said they were perjured; fe263 while others explain it as meaning that they not only lied with the tongue, but executed wicked devices with the hand. FE264 But as it was customary in making promises to join hands, as Solomon says, (<201121>Proverbs 11:21; <201605>Proverbs 16:5,) I have no doubt David’s reference here is to false, treacherous, and perfidious persons. The two things go naturally together in the verse — the lying tongue and the deceitful hand, meaning upon the matter that nothing was to be looked for from any of their promises, since it was only to deceive that they flattered with their mouth and gave the hand.

<19E409>Psalm 144:9-11

9. O God! I will sing a new song to thee: upon the nablum, upon the psaltery, fe265 I will sing psalms to thee. 10. Giving salvation to kings, delivering David his servant from the hurtful sword. 11. Deliver me, and rescue me from the hand of the sons of the stranger, whose mouth hath spoken falsehood, and their right hand is a right hand of deceit.


9. O God! I will sing a new song to thee. He again sets himself, with self-possession, to the exercise of praising God, not doubting but he would continue those mercies which he had once bestowed. I have taken notice in another place that by a new song is meant one of a singular or uncommon kind; and we are left from this to infer that David’s expectations stretched beyond the conclusions of man’s judgment; for, with a view to the greatness of the help to be extended, he promises a song of praise unprecedented in its nature, and distinguished, by the title here applied to it, from ordinary thanksgiving’s. As to the nablum and psaltery, I have elsewhere observed that they formed part of that system of training under the law to which the Church was subjected in its infancy. But the chief thing to be noticed is the subject of his songs that God, who is the preserver of kings, had kept — and even rescued from the sword — David, whom he had made and anointed king by his authoritative decree. As to the idea of there being implied in the term kings an opposition to the commonalty, David meaning that not only the common class of people are indebted to divine preservation, but the more influential, and such as appear to have sufficient and abundant strength of their own, I question whether it be well founded. His meaning seems to me rather to be different from this, That while God preserves all men without exception, his care is peculiarly extended to the maintenance of political order, which is the foundation of the common safety of all. It is in effect as if he called him the guardian and defender of kingdoms; for as the very mention of government is an odious thing, and none willingly obeys another, and nothing is more contrary to natural inclination than servitude, men would seek to throw off the yoke, and subvert the thrones of kings, were these not hedged round by a hidden divine presidency. David, however, distinguishes himself from other kings, as elsewhere he is called “the firstborn of kings,” (<198927>Psalm 89:27;) at least he speaks of the goodness of God as having been preeminently shown to him, representing himself as holding the highest place, on account of the holy anointing which had been more eminently bestowed upon him. As a title of distinction, he claims the special name of God’s servant; for although all kings are God’s servants, and Cyrus has the name applied to him by Isaiah emphatically, (<234501>Isaiah 45:1,) yet as no heathen prince ever recognized himself as called of God, and David alone of all others in the world was invested with legitimate authority, and had a warrant to reign which faith could rest upon with certainty, it was not without reason that this mark of distinction is applied to him. By the hurtful sword, are doubtless meant all the dangers he had passed through for a series of years, which were such that he might be truly said to have come to the throne by deaths oft, and to have been settled upon the throne in the midst of them.

<19E412>Psalm 144:12-15

12. Because our sons are as plants which have grown up in their youth, our daughters as corners polished after the similitude of a palace. fe266 13. Our recesses [or corners] full, going out, fe267 from kind to kind; our sheep brining forth to thousands, to ten thousands, fe268 in our streets. FE269 14. Our oxen accustomed fe270 to the burden, no breach, nor going out, nor cry in our streets. 15. Happy the people to whom it is so! happy the people whose God is Jehovah!


12. Because our sons, etc. These three concluding verses some consider as being a wish or a prayer. FE271 Others think that David congratulates himself, and all the people, that through the divine blessing every species of mercy was showered down prosperously upon them. I have no doubt that David commemorates, by way of thanksgiving, the liberality which God had shown to his people. But it consists very well with this, to suppose that he prays at the same time for the continuance or preservation of those divine benefits which must well-nigh be cut off altogether by wicked men and domestic foes, unless God should interpose, in the troubles and confusions which prevailed. The end he has in view therefore is, that God would not suffer the signal blessings with which he had loaded his people to fail and depart. He begins by making mention of the children, comparing the male portion of them, by way of commendation of their excellency, to plants which have grown up in their youth; for trees rarely come to any height if they do not grow large early, and when yet tender. He speaks of the girls as being like corners skillfully and ingeniously cut out, to make the building beautiful; as if he would say that they adorned the house by their comeliness and elegance. It is not surprising that he should reckon a noble and well trained offspring to be the very first of God’s earthly blessings, a point of which I have spoken elsewhere more at large. As David speaks in the name of the whole people, and of his own condition as mixed up with that of the community, we may infer from this that he was not exclusively occupied with his own private interests.

13. Our recesses full, etc. Some read storehouses, fe272 and I would not reject this meaning. But as the word comes from the same root with hwz, zavah, which is rendered corner in the previous verse, it seems more agreeable to the etymology to translate the words as I have done — “that the recesses or corners were full.” The participle yqypm, mephikim, some take transitively, and read producing, but the meaning comes to the same thing, that abundance of every blessing flowed from all the corners, expression ˆzAAla ˆzm, mizan el-zan, fe273 seems to me to denote the variety and manifold nature of the blessings, rather than, as some interpreters think, so abundant a produce as would issue in the different species being mixed, and forming a confused heap owing to the unmanageable plenty. We have no need to have recourse to this strained hyperbole, and the words as they stand evidently do not favor that sense, for had a confused heap been meant, it would have read simply ˆz ˆz, zan. The meaning in short is, that there prevailed amongst the people such plenty, not only of wheat, but all kinds of produce, that every corner was filled to sufficiency with every variety.

14. Our oxen, etc. The Hebrew word lbs, sabal, is properly to carry. Accordingly some understand ylbwsm, mesubbalim, to mean robust, fe274 as unless they were strong oxen they would not be fit for carriage, or bearing burdens. Others think they are spoken of as laden with fat. There is no need for insisting upon this point, as it does not affect the main scope of the passage. It may be more important to notice, that God’s fatherly care of his people is celebrated on the account that he condescends to attend to every the smallest matter which concerns their advantage. As in the verse before he had ascribed the fruitfulness of the herds and flocks to God’s goodness, so now the fattening of their oxen, to show that there is nothing relating to us here which he overlooks. As it would signify little to have abundance of everything unless we could enjoy it, he takes notice of it as another part of the Lord’s kindness that the people were peaceable and quiet. By breach I have no doubt that he alludes to hostile incursions, that there was no enemy to break in upon them through demolished gates or walls. By goings out it is surprising that any should understand exile, that the people were not torn away from the bounds of their native country. All he means simply is, in my opinion, that there was no necessity of sallying out to repel an enemy, none offering violence or molestation. To the same effect is the expression, as to any crying in the streets, the effect of a sudden tumult. The meaning is, accordingly, that there was no disturbance in the cities, because God kept enemies at a distance.

15. Happy the people, etc. He thus concludes that the divine favor had been sufficiently shown and manifested to his people. Should any object that it breathed altogether a gross and worldly spirit to estimate man’s happiness by benefits of a transitory description, I would say in reply that we must read the two things in connection, that those are happy who recognize the favor of God in the abundance they enjoy, and have such a sense of it from these transitory blessings as leads them through a persuasion of his fatherly love to aspire after the true inheritance. There is no impropriety in calling those happy whom God blesses in this world, provided they do not show themselves blinded in the improvement and use which they make of their mercies, or foolishly and supinely overlook the author of them. The kind providence of God in not suffering us to want any of the means of life is surely a striking illustration of his wonderful love. What more desirable than to be the objects of God’s care, especially if we have sufficient understanding to conclude from the liberality with which he supports us he is our Father? For everything is to be viewed with a reference to this point. Better it were at once to perish for want than have a mere brute satisfaction, and forget the main thing of all, that they and they only are happy whom God has chosen for his people. We are to observe this, that while God in giving us meat and drink admits us to the enjoyment of a certain measure of happiness, it does not follow that those believers are miserable who struggle through life in want and poverty, for this want, whatever it be, God can counterbalance by better consolations.


The Psalmist is led to celebrate the praises of God by reflecting upon his excellent wisdom, goodness, and righteousness, both in the government of the world generally, and particularly in managing, superintending, and defending the children of men. After recounting in general the praises of his providence, he comes to speak of the special favor shown by him to his own people.

The Praise of David fe275

<19E501>Psalm 145:1-6

1. I will extol thee, my God and my king! FE276 and I will bless thy name for ever and ever. 2. Daily I will bless thee, and will praise thy name for ever and ever. FE277 3. Great is Jehovah, and greatly to be praised, and there is no searching out, his greatness. 4. Generation to generation, will praise thy works, and will show forth thy power. 5. I will meditate upon fe278 the beauty of the glory of thy excellency, and the words of thy wonderful things. 6. And they shall speak of the might of thy terrible works, and I will declare thy greatness.


1. I will extol thee, my God and my king. David does not so much tell what he would do himself, as stir up and urge all others to this religious service of offering to God the praises due to his name. The design with which he declares God to be beneficent to the children of men is, to induce them to cultivate a pious gratitude, he insists upon the necessity of persevering in the exercise; for since God is constant in extending mercies, it would be highly improper in us to faint in his praises. As he thus gives his people new ground for praising him, so he stimulates them to gratitude, and to exercise it throughout the whole course of their life. In using the term daily, he denotes perseverance in the exercise. Afterwards he adds, that should he live through a succession of ages he would never cease to act in this manner. The repetitions used tend very considerably to give emphasis to his language. As it is probable that the Psalm was written at a time when the kingdom of David was in a flourishing condition, the circumstances deserves notice, that in calling God his king he gives both himself and other earthly princes their proper place, and does not allow any earthly distinctions to interfere with the glory due to God.

This is made still more manifest in the verse which follows, where, in speaking of the greatness of God as unmeasurable, he intimates that we only praise God aright when we are filled and overwhelmed with an ecstatic admiration of the immensity of his power. This admiration will form the fountain from which our just praises of him will proceed, according the measure of our capacity.

4. Generation to generation, etc. Here he insists upon the general truth, that all men were made and are preserved in life for this end, that they may devote themselves to the praise of God. And there is an implied contrast between the eternal name of God, and that immortality of renown which great men seem to acquire by their exploits. Human excellencies are eulogized in histories; with God it stands differently, for there is not a day in which he does not. renew remembrance of his works, and cherish it by some present effect, so as indelibly to preserve it alive upon our minds. For the same reason he speaks of the glorious brightness, or beauty of his excellence, the better to raise in others a due admiration of it. By the words of his wonderful works, I consider that there is an allusion to the incomprehensible method of God’s works, for so many are the wonders that they overwhelm our senses. And we may infer from this, that the greatness of God is not that which lies concealed in his mysterious essence, and in subtle disputation upon which, to the neglect of his works, many have been chargeable with mere trifling, for true religion demands practical not speculative knowledge. Having said that he would speak of, or meditate upon God’s works, (for the Hebrew word, hjya, asichah, as we have elsewhere seen, may be rendered either way,) he transfers his discourse to others, intimating, that there will always be some in the world to declare the righteousness, goodness, and wisdom of God, and that his divine excellencies are worthy of being sounded, with universal consent, by every tongue. And, should others desist and defraud God of the honor due to him, he declares that he would himself at least discharge his part, and, while they were silent, energetically set forth the praises of God. Some think, that the might of his terrible works is an expression to the same effect with what had been already stated. But it seems rather to denote the judgments of God against profane scoffers.

<19E507>Psalm 145:7-13

7. They shall steak forth [or, utter copiously] the memory of the greatness of thy goodness, and shall sing of thy righteousness. 8. Jehovah is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger, and great in mercy. 9. Jehovah is good to all, and his mercies above all his works. 10. All thy works shall praise thee, O Jehovah! and thy merciful ones shall bless thee. 11. They shall speak the glory of thy kingdom, and shall talk of thy power. 12. That they may make known his powers to the sons of men, and the glory of the beauty of his kingdom. 13. Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all ages, and thy dominion unto all successive generations. FE279


7. They shall speak forth, etc. As the verb [bn, nabang, means properly to gush out, some suppose, that, as applied to speech, it means not simply speaking, but an overflowing utterance, like water rushing from a fountain, and the verb wnnry, yerannenu, in the close of the verse, answers to this, meaning to shout, or sing aloud. To celebrate the memory of the Lord’s goodness, is the same with recalling to memory what we have personally experienced of his goodness. We cannot deny God’s claim to praise in all his excellencies, but we are most sensibly affected by such proofs of his fatherly mercy as we have ourselves experienced. David makes use, therefore, of this alluring consideration to induce us the more readily and cheerfully to engage in the praises of God, or rather, (according to the figurative word already used,) to burst forth in celebration of them.

8. Jehovah is gracious, etc. He opens up the goodness of which he spoke by using several expressions, as that God is inclined to mercy, (for such is the proper meaning of the word ˆwnj, channun,) and that he helps us willingly, as one sympathizing with our miseries. It is to be noticed that David has borrowed the terms which he here applies to God from that celebrated passage in <023406>Exodus 34:6; and as the inspired writers drew their doctrine from the fountain of the law, we need not wonder that they set a high value upon the vision which is there recorded, and in which as clear and satisfactory a description of the nature of God is given us as can anywhere be found. David, therefore, in giving us a brief statement of what it was most important we should know in reference to God, makes use of the same terms employed there. Indeed no small part of the grace of God is to be seen in his alluring us to himself by such attractive titles. Were he to bring his power prominently into view before us, we would be cast down by the terror of it rather than encouraged, as the Papists represent him a dreadful God, from whose presence all must fly, whereas the proper view of him is that which invites us to seek after him. Accordingly, the more nearly that a person feels himself drawn to God, the more has he advanced in the knowledge of him. If it be true that God is not only willing to befriend us, but is spoken of as touched with sympathy for our miseries, so as to be all the kinder to us the more that we are miserable, what folly were it not to fly to him without delay? But as we drive God’s goodness away from us by our sins, and block up the way of access, unless his goodness overcome this obstacle, it would be in vain that the Prophets spoke of his grace and mercy. FE280 It was necessary, therefore, to add what follows, that great is his mercy, that he pardons sins, and bears with the wickedness of men, so as to show favor to the unworthy. As regards the ungodly, although God shows them his long-suffering patience, they are incapable of perceiving pardon, so that the doctrine on which we insist has a special application to believers only, who apprehend God’s goodness by a living faith. To the wicked it is said —

“To what end is the day of the Lord for you? the day of the Lord is darkness and not light, affliction and not joy.”
(<300518>Amos 5:18.)

We see in what severe terms Nahum threatens them at the very beginning of his prophecy. Having referred to the language used in the passage from Moses, he adds immediately, on the other hand, to prevent them being emboldened by it, that God is a rigid and severe, a terrible and an inexorable judge. (<340103>Nahum 1:3.) They therefore who have provoked God to anger by their sins, must see to secure his favor by believing.

9. Jehovah is good to all, etc. The truth here stated is of wider application than the former, for the declaration of David is to the effect, that not only does God, with fatherly indulgence and clemency, forgive sin, but is good to all without discrimination, as he makes his sun to rise upon the good and upon the wicked. (<400545>Matthew 5:45.) Forgiveness of sin is a treasure from which the wicked are excluded, but their sin and depravity does not prevent God from showering down his goodness upon them, which they appropriate without being at all sensible of it. Meanwhile believers, and they only, know what it is to enjoy a reconciled God, as elsewhere it is said —

“Come ye to him, and be ye enlightened, and your faces shall not be ashamed; taste and see that the Lord is good.”
(<193405>Psalm 34:5, 8.)

When it is added that the mercy of God extends to all his works, this ought not to be considered as contrary to reason, or obscure. Our sins having involved the whole world in the curse of God, there is everywhere an opportunity for the exercise of God’s mercy, even in helping the brute creation.

10. All thy works, etc. Though many would suppress God’s praises, observing a wicked silence regarding them, David declares that they shine forth everywhere, appear of themselves, and are sounded, as it were, by the very dumb creatures. He then assigns the special work of declaring them to believers, who have eyes to perceive God’s works, and know that they cannot be employed better than in celebrating his mercies. What is added — they shall speak the glory of thy kingdom I consider to have reference only to believers. If any incline to think that these words rather apply to God’s creatures universally, I would not object to that view. But the particular kind of speaking or teaching which David here refers to, applies only to saints. Accordingly I have retained the future tense of the verbs, rather than the optative mood, as others have done. In using the term kingdom, David intimates that this is the tendency of the manifestation of God’s works, to reduce the whole world to a state of order, and subject it to his government. He insists upon the excellency of this kingdom, that men may know that things are to be considered as in disorder and confusion, unless God alone be acknowledged supreme. He denies it to be transitory, like all earthly kingdoms, asserting that it will stand fast for ever. And to call our attention more particularly to its everlasting nature, he breaks out into an admiring exclamation, and addresses his discourse to God.

<19E514>Psalm 145:14-16

14. Jehovah upholding all the falling, fe281 and raising up all who are bowed down. 15. The eyes of all hope in thee, and thou givest them their food in its season. 16. Thou openest thine hand, and satisfiest every living thing by thy good pleasure.


14. Jehovah upholding all the falling. He gives instances of the goodness and mercy of God, such as make it evident that God reigns only for the promotion of the general welfare of mankind. By the falling, and those who are bowed down, he means figuratively those who are overwhelmed by adversity, and would sink at once, were not God to extend his hand for their support. God, in short, has respect to the troubles of men, and helps such as are in distress, so that all ought not only to look upon his divine government with reverence, but willingly and cordially submit themselves to it. Another lesson taught us is, that none will be disappointed who seeks comfort from God in his affliction.

15. The eyes of all hope in thee. David adduces an additional proof of God’s goodness, in giving food to all living creatures, and thus showing himself in the character of the father of a family. Some interpreters, led by the term hope, which is employed, restrict the application to men, as being endued with reason and intelligence, to seek their food from their heavenly father, while the beasts seek it only in a gross manner, by sight or smell. But although not endued with the exercise of reason, leading them to depend upon God’s providence, necessity itself forces even them, by a certain hidden instinct, to seek their food, so that they may very properly be said to hope in God, as elsewhere the young ravens are said to cry unto him. (<19E709>Psalm 147:9.) Besides, those who would restrict the words to man, still leave them open to the charge of impropriety; for the wicked have no regard to the fatherly care of God, more than the ox or the ass. Since such is the order established in nature that all animals are brought to a dependence upon their Maker, there is no impropriety in supposing the affection of desire or expectation to be here put for the fact of dependence itself. FE282 All ambiguity is taken away by the next verse, where every living thing is said to be satisfied. It is said that he gives them their food, and in its season, for the very variety of it serves more to illustrate the providence of God. Each has its own way of feeding, and the different kinds of aliment are designed and adapted for different uses. David therefore speaks of that food which is particular to them. The pronoun is not in the plural, and we are not to read in their season, as if it applied to the animals. The food he notices as given in its season; for here also we are to notice the admirable arrangements of divine providence, that there is a certain time appointed for harvest, vintage, and hay crop, and that the year is so divided into intervals, that the cattle are fed at one time upon grass, at another on hay, or straw, or acorns, or other products of the earth. Were the whole supply poured forth at one and the same moment, it could not be gathered together so conveniently; and we have no small reason to admire the seasonableness with which the different kinds of fruit and aliment are yearly produced.

16. Thou openest thine hand, etc. The figure is a beautiful one. Most men pass over without observation the singular goodness of God apparent in this admirable ordering of things in nature, and David therefore represents him as stretching out his hand to distribute to the animals their food. We sinfully confine our attention to the earth which yields us our food, or to natural causes. To correct this error David describes God as opening his hands to put the food into our mouths. The word ˆwxr, ratson, some render desire, as though he meant that God supplied each kind of animal with food according to its wish. And a little afterwards we do indeed find it used in that sense. Others, however, refer it rather to God’s feeding them of his mere good pleasure and kindness; it not being enough to say that our food is given us by God, unless we add, as in the second clause of the verse, that his kindness is gratuitous, and that there is no extrinsic cause whatever moving him to provide so liberally for every living creature. In that case the cause is put for the effect; the various kinds of provision being effects of his good pleasure — carismata thv ca>ritov. If it be found that men and others of his creatures often suffer and die from want, this is to be traced to the change which has come upon nature by sin. The fair order which subsisted in it by God’s original appointment often fails since the fall through our sins, and yet in what remains of it, though marred, we may see the kindness of God referred to by David, for in the severest failures of crop, there is no year so barren and unproductive, that God may not be said to open his hand in it.

<19E517>Psalm 145:17-21

17. Jehovah is righteous in all his ways, and merciful in all his works. 18. Jehovah is near to all who call upon him, to all who call upon him in truth. 19. He will perform the desire of them that fear him, and will hear their cry, and will save them. 20. Jehovah preserves all them that love him, and will destroy all the wicked. 21. My mouth shall speak the praise of Jehovah, and all, flesh shall bless his holy name for ever and ever.


17. Jehovah is righteous in all his ways. He does not now speak of God’s goodness merely in providing all his creatures with their daily food, but comprehends other parts of his providence, as in correcting men for their sins, restraining the wicked, trying the patience of his people under the cross, and governing the world by judgments which are often inscrutable to us. The ground upon which praise is here ascribed to God may seem a common one, being in every one’s mouth; but in nothing is wisdom shown more than in holding fast the truth, that God is just in all his ways, so as to retain in our hearts an unabated sense of it amidst all troubles and confusions. Though all acknowledge God to be just, most men are no sooner overtaken by affliction than they quarrel with his severity: unless their wishes are immediately complied with, they are impatient, and nothing is more common than to hear his justice impeached. As it is everywhere abused by the wicked imputations men cast upon it, here it is very properly vindicated from such ungrateful treatment, and asserted to be constant and unfailing, however loudly the word may disparage it. It is expressly added, in all his ways and works, for we fail to give God due honor unless we recognize a consistent tenor of righteousness in the whole progress of his operation. Nothing is more difficult in the time of trouble, when God has apparently forsaken us, or afflicts us without cause, than to restrain our corrupt feelings from breaking out against his judgments; as we are told of the emperor Mauricius in a memorable passage of history, that seeing his sons murdered by the wicked and perfidious traitor Phocas, and being about to be carried out himself to death, he cried out — “Thou art righteous, O God, and just are thy judgments!” As this man of no bad character opposed such a shield to the cruel trials he met with, we must learn to put a check upon our spirits, and always give God’s righteousness the honor due to it. David, however, goes farther still, intimating that God, even when he seems to be most severe, is so far from being cruel as to temper his heaviest judgments with equity and clemency.

18. Jehovah is near to all that call upon him. This truth is principally applicable to believers, whom God in the way of singular privilege invites to draw near him, promising that he will be favorable to their prayers. Faith, there is no doubt, lies idle and even dead without prayer, in which the spirit of adoption shows and exercises itself, and by which we evidence that all his promises are considered by us as stable and sure. The inestimable grace of God, in short, towards believers, appears in this, that he exhibits himself to them as a Father. As many doubts steal upon us when we pray to God, and we either approach him with trembling, or fail by becoming discouraged and lifeless, David declares it to be true without exception, that God hears all who call upon him. At the same time, as most men pervert and profane the method of calling upon God through inventions of their own, the right manner of praying is laid down in the next part of the verse, which is, that we should pray in truth. Although men resort to God in a cold manner, or even in their prayers expostulate with him, while their hearts are swelling with pride or with anger, they yet complain that. they are not heard; just as if there were no difference between praying and quarreling, or the exercise of faith and hypocrisy. The greater part of men, involved in infidelity, scarcely believe that there is a God in heaven at all; others would banish him from it if they could; others would tie him down to their views and, wishes, while some seek slight and insufficient ways of reconciling him, so that the common way of praying is but an idle and empty ceremony. FE283 And although nearly all men without exception have recourse to God in the time of their need, they are few indeed who bring the smallest measure of faith or repentance. It were better that the name of God should be buried in oblivion than exposed to such insults. There is good reason, therefore, why truth should be said to be necessary in our prayers — that they come from a sincere heart. The falsehood, which is the opposite of this sincerity, is of various kinds; indeed it were difficult to enumerate them — infidelity, wavering, impatience, murmuring, pretended humility, in short there are as many sorts of it as there are sinful dispositions. The truth being one of no small importance, David again confirms and enlarges upon it in the next verse. The repetition is worthy of our particular notice, for such is our tendency to unbelief, that there are few who in calling upon God do not look upon their prayers as fruitless. Hence the perverse manner in which the wandering minds of men are tossed hither and thither, as in the Papacy they invented patrons without number, holding it of no importance almost to embrace with an unwavering faith the promises by which God invites us to himself.

To throw the door still more open, the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of David, tells us, that God will accommodate himself to the desires of all who fear him. This is a mode of expression of which it is difficult to say how much it ought to impress our minds. Who is man, that God should show complaisance to his will, when rather it is ours to look up to his exalted greatness, and humbly submit to his authority? Yet he voluntarily condescends to these terms, to obtemper our desires. At the same time, there is a check to be put upon this liberty, and we have not a license of universal appetency, as if his people might forwardly clamor for whatever their corrupt desires listed, but before God says that he will hear their prayers, he enjoins the law of moderation and submission upon their affections, as we learn from John, —

“We know that he will deny us nothing,
if we seek it according to his will.” (<620514>1 John 5:14.)

For the same reason, Christ dictated that form of prayer, “Thy will be done,” setting limits round us, that we should not preposterously prefer our desires to those of God, nor ask without deliberation what first comes into our mouth. David, in making express mention of them that fear God, enjoins fear, reverence, and obedience upon them before holding out the favorable indulgence of God, that they might not think themselves warranted to ask more than his word grants and approves. When he speaks of their cry, this is a kind of qualification of what he had said. For God’s willingness to grant our prayers is not always so apparent that he answers them at the very moment they are made. We have, therefore, need of perseverance in this trial of our faith, and our desires must be confirmed by crying. The last clause — he will save them — is also added by way of correction, to make us aware how far, and for what end God answers the prayers of his people, namely, to evidence in a practical manner that he is the faithful guardian of their welfare.

20. Jehovah preserves, etc. He insists upon the same truth, — that God is near to his people to help them in the time of need; this being a sure proof of his presence, that by his mercy they come safe and unhurt out of every danger which befalls them. It is worthy of our notice, that, instead of fear, he now speaks of love; for, in distinguishing believers by this title, that they love God, he intimates it to be the root of true godliness, that they submit themselves to him voluntarily, which again is the effect of faith. Till God draw us by the attractions of his grace, this placid submission will never follow. The love spoken of by David, however, is perhaps more extensive, as God’s people not only attach themselves to him in the way of obedience to his authority, but knowing that union to him is of all other things most desirable, aspire with their whole soul after this happiness. Still there can be no doubt, that the reference is to it here as the chief part of holiness and righteousness, as was said by Moses,

“And now, O Israel, what does the Lord thy God require of thee,” etc. (<051012>Deuteronomy 10:12.)

This effect of godliness in securing our safety and preservation under the divine guardianship, David exemplifies by an opposition clause, declaring, that all the wicked shall, in the just judgment of God, miserably perish. That he might close as he had begun, he again affirms, that he will publish the praises of God, and urges all to the same duty by his example. Some would read, every living thing shall bless, but this does not seem to me a proper reading. When Moses, speaking of the flood, says, that “all flesh in which was the breath of life perished,” I grant that the term comprehends the brute creation, but wherever “flesh” is mentioned without any addition, the reference is only to men. Nor is David here stating what they would, but what they should do, declaring all men bound by the great and inexhaustible goodness of God constantly and for ever to praise him.

PSALM 146 fe284

After stirring up himself, and others by his example, to praise God, David animadverts upon the diseased disposition, almost universally prevalent, to deceive ourselves by expectations entertained from various quarters. He, at the same time, points out the remedy — that our whole hope should be centered in God. To persuade us to resort to him more readily, he touches shortly upon some proofs of his power and mercy.


<19E601>Psalm 146:1-5

1. Praise Jehovah, O my soul! 2. I will praise Jehovah in my life; I will sing psalms to my God so long as I shall have being. 3. Trust not in princes; in the son of man in whom there is not safety. 4. His breath shall go forth; he shall return to his earth, in that day his thoughts fe285 shall perish. 5. Blessed is he whose help is the God of Jacob, whose hope is in Jehovah, his God.


1. Praise Jehovah. The five last Psalms close with the same word with which they begin. FE286 But having in general called upon all to praise God, he addresses himself, or, which is the same thing, his soul, only that under the name of soul he addresses his inward self more emphatically. We may infer from this, that the influence which moved him was not volatile and superficial, (as many will blame themselves with remissness on this point, and then immediately lapse into it again,) but a staid and constant affection, followed up by activity, and proved by its effects not to be feigned. As David felt, that good endeavors are frustrated or hindered through the craft of Satan, he thinks it proper to apply a stimulus for exciting his own zeal, in the first place, before professing to be a leader or teacher to others. Although his heart was truly and seriously in the work, he would not rest in this, until he had acquired still greater ardor. And if it was necessary for David to stir himself up to the praises of God, how powerful a stimulant must we require for a more difficult matter when we aim at the divine life with self-denial. As to the religious exercise here mentioned, let us feel that we will never be sufficiently active in it, unless we strenuously exact it from ourselves. As God supports and maintains his people in the world with this view, that they may employ their whole life in praising him, David very properly declares, that he will do this to the end of his course.

3. Trust not in princes. This admonition is appropriately inserted, for one means by which men blind themselves is that of involving their minds through a number of inventions, and being thus prevented from engaging in the praises of God. That God may have the whole praise due to him, David exposes and overthrows those false stays on which we would otherwise be too much disposed to trust. His meaning is, that we should withdraw ourselves from man in general, but he names princes, from whom more is to be feared than common men. For what promise could poor people hold out, or such as need the help of others? The great and wealthy, again, have a dangerous attraction through the splendor attaching to them, suggesting to us the step of taking shelter under their patronage. As the simple are fascinated by looking to their grandeur, he adds, that the most powerful of the world’s princes is but a son of man. This should be enough to rebuke our folly in worshipping them as a kind of demigods, as Isaiah says, (<233103>Isaiah 31:3,) “The Egyptian is man, and not God; flesh, and not spirit.” Although princes then are furnished with power, money, troops of men, and other resources, David reminds us, that it is wrong to place our trust in frail mortal man, and vain to seek safety where it cannot be found.

This he explains more fully in the verse, which follows, where he tells us how short and fleeting the life of man is. Though God throw loose the reins, and suffer princes even to invade heaven in the wildest enterprises, the passing of the spirit, like a breath, suddenly overthrows all their counsels and plans. The body being the dwelling-place of the soul, what is here said may very well be so understood; for at death God recalls the spirit. We may understand it more simply, however, of the vital breath; and this will answer better with the context — that as soon as man has ceased to breathe, his corpse is subject to putrefaction. It follows, that those who put their trust in men, depend upon a fleeting breath. When he says that in that day all his thoughts perish, or flow away, perhaps under this expression he censures the madness of princes in setting no bounds to their hopes and desires, and scaling the very heavens in their ambition, like the insane Alexander of Macedon, who, upon hearing that there were other worlds, wept that he had not yet conquered one, although soon after the funeral urn sufficed him. Observation itself proves that the schemes of princes are deep and complicated. That we may not fall, therefore, into the error of connecting our hopes with them, David says that the life of princes also passes away swiftly and in a moment, and that with it all their plans vanish.

5. Blessed is he, etc. As it would not have been enough to reprove the sin, he submits the remedy upon which the proper correction of it depends; and this is, that the hopes of men are only stable and well-founded when they rest entirely upon God. For even the wicked sometimes come the length of acknowledging the folly of trust in man. Accordingly they are often angry with themselves for being so inconsiderate as to expect deliverance from men; but by neglecting the remedy, they are not extricated from their error. The Psalmist having condemned the infatuation, which we have seen to be natural to us all, wisely subjoins that they are blessed who trust in God. Jeremiah observes the same order. (<241705>Jeremiah 17:5, 7.)

“Cursed is he that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm,” etc.;

and then — “Blessed is the man whose hope the Lord is.” When David pronounces those blessed whose help is the Lord, he does not restrict the happiness of believers to present sense, as if they were only happy when God openly and in outward acts appeared as their helper, but he places their happiness in this — that they are truly persuaded of its being entirely by the grace of God they stand. He calls him the God of Jacob, to distinguish him from the multitude of false gods in which unbelievers gloried at that time; and there was good reason for this; for while all propose to themselves to seek God, few take the right way. In designating the true God by his proper mark, he intimates that it is only by an assured faith of adoption that any of us can rest upon him; for he must show himself favorable to us before we can look for help from him.

<19E606>Psalm 146:6-10

6. Who made heaven and earth, the sea, and all things which are in them: who keepeth truth for ever. 7. Rendering right to the unjustly oppressed, giving bread to the hungry, Jehovah, loosening the bound. 8. Jehovah enlightening the blind, fe287 Jehovah raising up the bowed down, Jehovah loving the righteous. 9. Jehovah guarding the strangers; he relieves the fatherless and widow, and will destroy the way of the wicked. 10. Jehovah shall reign for ever; thy God, O Zion! from generation to generation. Hallelujah.


6. Who made heaven, etc. By all these epithets he confirms the truth previously stated. For though at first sight it may seem inappropriate to speak of the Creation, the power of God bears most pertinently upon his helping us whenever danger is near. We know how easily Satan tempts to distrust, and we are thrown into a state of trembling agitation by the slightest causes. Now, if we reflect that God is the Maker of heaven and earth, we will reasonably give him the honor of having the government of the world which he created in his hands and power. There is in this first ascription, then, a commendation of his power, which should swallow up all our fears. As it is not enough that God is merely able to help us, but as a promise is farther necessary, to the effect that he is willing and shall do it, David next declares that he is faithful and true, that, on discovering his willingness, no room may be left for hesitation.

7. Rendering right, etc. He instances other kinds both of the power and goodness of God, which are just so many reasons why we should hope in him. All of them bear upon the point, that the help of God will be ready and forthcoming to those who are in the lowest circumstances, that accordingly our miseries will be no barrier in the way of his helping us; nay, that such is his nature, that he is disposed to assist all in proportion to their necessity. He says first, that God renders justice to the oppressed, to remind us that although in the judgment of sense God connives at the injuries done to us, he will not neglect the duty which properly belongs to him of forcing the wicked to give an account of their violence. As God, in short, would have the patience of his people tried, he here expressly calls upon the afflicted not to faint under their troubles, but composedly wait for deliverance from one who is slow in interposing, only that he may appear eventually as the righteous judge of the world. It follows, that he gives bread to the hungry. We learn from this that he is not always so indulgent to his own as to load them with abundance, but occasionally withdraws his blessing, that he may succor them when reduced to hunger. Had the Psalmist said that God fed his people with abundance, and pampered them, would not any of those under want or in famine have immediately desponded? The goodness of God is therefore properly extended farther to the feeding of the hungry. What is added is to the same purpose — that he looses them that are bound, and enlightens the blind. As it is the fate of his people to be straitened by anxiety, or pressed down by human tyranny, or reduced to extremity, in a manner equivalent to being shut up in the worst of dungeons, it was necessary to announce, by way of comfort, that God can easily find an outgate for us when brought into such straits. To enlighten the blind is the same with giving light in the midst of darkness. When at any time we know not what to do — are in perplexity, and lie confounded and dismayed, as if the darkness of death had fallen upon us — let us learn to ascribe this title to God, that he may dissipate the gloom and open our eyes. So when he is said to raise up the bowed down, we are taught to take courage when weary and groaning under any burden. Nor is it merely that God would here have his praises celebrated; he in a manner stretches out his hand to the blind, the captives, and the afflicted, that they may cast their grief’s and cares upon him. There is a reason for repeating the name Jehovah three times. In this way he stimulates and excites men to seek him who will often rather chafe and pine away in their miseries, than betake themselves to this sure asylum. FE288 What is added in the close of the verse — that Jehovah loves the righteous, would seem to be a qualification of what was formerly said. There are evidently many who, though they are grievously afflicted, and groan with anxiety, and lie in darkness, experience no comfort from God; and this because in such circumstances they provoke God more by their contumacy, and by failing for the most part to seek his mercy, reap the just reward of their unthankfulness. The Psalmist therefore very properly restricts what he had said in general terms of God’s helping the afflicted, to the righteous — that those who wish to experience his deliverance, may address themselves to him in the sincere exercise of godliness.

9. Jehovah guarding, etc. By strangers, orphans, and widows, the Psalmist means all those in general who are destitute of the help of man. While all show favor to those who are known to them and near to them, we know that strangers are, for the most part, exposed to injurious treatment. We find comparatively few who come forward to protect and redress widows and orphans; it seems lost labor, where there is no likelihood of compensation. Under these cases the Psalmist shows that whatever the grievance may be under which we suffer, the reason can only be with ourselves if God, who so kindly invites all who are in distress to come to him, does not stretch forth his arm for our help. On the other hand, he declares that everything will have an adverse and unfortunate issue to those who wickedly despise God. We have said upon the first Psalm, that by the way is meant the course of life in general. God will destroy the way of the wicked, inasmuch as he will curse all their counsels, acts, attempts, and enterprises, so that none of them shall have good success. However excellent they may be in planning, although they may be crafty and sharp-sighted, and abound in strength of resources of every kind, God will overturn all their expectations. While he extends his hand to those who are his people, and brings them through all obstacles, and even impassable ways, he on the contrary destroys the path of the wicked, when apparently most open and plain before them.

10. Jehovah shall reign, etc. He directs his discourse to the Church, that he may more effectually persuade all God’s people of their really finding him to be such as he had just described. When he says that God is king for ever, we are to remember at the same time the purpose for which he reigns — taking our definition of it from the preceding ascription’s. It follows that, whether living or dying, we shall be safe under the keeping of a king who reigns expressly for our salvation. Had he said no more than that Jehovah reigned for ever, we would have been ready to object the distance between us and his inconceivable greatness. He states, therefore, in express terms, his being bound by sacred covenant to his chosen people.


This Psalm also incites the people of God to praise him upon two accounts; first, for the display of his power, goodness, wisdom, and other perfections in the common government of the world, and the several parts of it, the heavens and the earth, but more particularly for his special goodness in cherishing and defending the Church which he has chosen of his free grace, in restoring it when fallen down, and gathering it when dispersed. fe289

<19E701>Psalm 147:1-6

1. Praise ye God; for it is good to sing praises unto our God, for it is pleasant, and praise is comely. 2. Jehovah building up Jerusalem, will gather the dispersed of Israel: 3. Healing the contrite in heart, and binding up their griefs: 4. Numbering the multitude of the stars, giving names to each of them. 5. Great is our Lord, and plenteous in power, there is no figure for his understanding. 6. Jehovah raiseth up the miserable, and casteth the wicked down to the ground.


Praise ye God, etc. Though the benefits he speaks of are such as God extends to all men indiscriminately, it is plain that he addresses more especially God’s people, who alone behold his works in an enlightened manner, whereas stupidity and blindness of mind deprive others of their understanding. Nor is his subject confined to the common benefits of God, but the main thing which he celebrates is his mercy, as shown to his chosen people. That the Church may address itself to the praises of God with more alacrity, he states that this kind of exercise is good, delightful, and pleasant, by which he indirectly censures a sin which is all but universal of becoming wearied at the very mention of God, and counting it our highest pleasure to forget both God and ourselves, that we may give way to unrestrained indulgence. To teach men to take a delight in this religious exercise, the Psalmist reminds them that praise is comely, or desirable. For the term hwan, navah, may be rendered either way.

2. Jehovah building up, etc. He begins with the special mercy of God towards his Church and people, in choosing to adopt one nation out of all others, and selecting a fixed place where his name might be called upon. When he is here called the builder of Jerusalem, the allusion is not so much to the outward form and structure, as to the spiritual worship of God. It is a common figure in treating of the Church to speak of it as a building or temple. The meaning is, that the Church was not of human erection, but formed by the supernatural power of God; for it was from no dignity of the place itself that Jerusalem became the only habitation of God in our world, nor did it come to this honor by counsel, industry, effort or power of man, but because God was pleased to consecrate it to himself. He employed the labor and instrumentality of men indeed in erecting his sanctuary there, but this ought never to take from his grace, which alone distinguished the holy city from all others. In calling God the former and architect of the Church, his object is to make us aware that by his power it remains in a firm condition, or is restored when in ruins. Hence he infers that it is in his power and arbitrament to gather those who have been dispersed. Here the Psalmist would comfort those miserable exiles who had been scattered in various quarters, with the hope of being recovered from their dispersion, as God had not adopted them without a definite purpose into one body. As he had ordered his temple and altar to be erected at Jerusalem, and had fixed his seat there, the Psalmist would encourage the Jews who were exiles from their native country, to entertain good hope of a return, intimating that it was no less properly God’s work to raise up his Church when ruined and fallen down, than to found it at first. It was not, therefore, the Psalmist’s object directly to celebrate the free mercy of God in the first institution of the Church, but to argue from its original, that God would not suffer his Church altogether to fall, having once founded it with the design of preserving it for ever; for he forsakes not the work of his own hands. This comfort ought to be improved by ourselves at the present period, when we see the Church on every side so miserably rent asunder, leading us to hope that all the elect who have been adjoined to Christ’s body, will be gathered unto the unity of the faith, although now scattered like members torn from one another, and that the mutilated body of the Church, which is daily distracted, will be restored to its entireness; for God will not suffer his work to fail.

In the following verse he insists upon the same truth, the figure suggesting that though the Church labor under, and be oppressed by many diseases, God will speedily and easily recover it from all its wounds. The same truth, therefore, is evidently conveyed, under a different form of expression — that the Church, though it may not always be in a flourishing condition, is ever safe and secure, and that God will miraculously heal it, as though it were a diseased body.

4. Numbering the multitude, etc. As the gathering together of the people of whom the Psalmist spoke might appear to be an impossibility, there seems some ground for the opinion of those who think that he confirms it in this verse. The connection they give to the Psalmist’s words is this — that as it is at least not more difficult to gather men together who are outcast and scattered, than to number the stars, there was no reason why the wandering exile Israelites should despair of their return, provided they should resort with one consent to God as their only head. There is some probability, too, in the conjecture that the Psalmist may allude to that promise —

“Look now towards the stars of heaven, if thou canst tell them,
so shall thy seed be.” (<011505>Genesis 15:5.)

But as the Psalmist immediately afterwards treats of the order of things in nature generally, the simplest rendering, I think, is to understand this verse with reference to the admirable work of God to be seen in the heavens, where we behold his matchless wisdom, in regulating, without one degree of aberration, the manifold, complex, winding courses of the stars. To each of them he assigns its fixed and distinct office, and in all the multitude there is no confusion. He therefore exclaims immediately — Great is God, and boundless, both in power and understanding. We learn from this that there cannot be greater folly than to make our judgment the measure of God’s works, displaying in these, as he often does, his incomprehensible power and wisdom.

6. Raising up, etc. The ascription of this to God fitly tends to confirm our hope under affliction, and prevent our souls from fainting under the cross. From this we may infer that although our fathers who lived under the Law were more gently dealt with, they knew something at least of that warfare with which God daily exercises us, in order to make us seek our true rest elsewhere than in this world. Should a doubt steal upon the minds of those who have been brought under heavy afflictions, as to the forthcoming of that help which God has promised to extend, let the truth recur to our remembrance, that we are brought low that God may lift us up again. And if upon seeing the prosperity of the wicked we are smitten and inflamed with envy, let the words of the Psalmist come into our mind, That they are lifted up that they may be cast down into destruction. When he speaks of their being cast down even to the earth, there can be no doubt that he passes an indirect censure upon their pride which leads them to exalt themselves on high, as if they belonged to some superior order of beings.

<19E707>Psalm 147:7-11

7. Sing to Jehovah in thanksgiving, sing psalms to our God upon the harp. FE290 8. Who covereth the heavens with clouds, prepareth rain for the earth, maketh grass to germinate on the mountains. FE291A 9. Who giveth to the cattle their food, to the young ones of the ravens which cry to him. 10. Not in the strength of the horse will he take pleasure, nor in the legs of man will he delight. 11. Jehovah delighteth in those who fear him, who hope in his mercy.


7. Sing to Jehovah in thanksgiving. Again he exhorts to sing the praises of God, intimating at the same time that abundant matter was not wanting, since new proofs still meet our eyes of his power, goodness, and wisdom. First he tells us that he covers the heavens with clouds, and this change would awaken our attention, were we not chargeable with so much thoughtlessness. Various as are the marvels to be seen in the heavens above us, were the same serenity always to continue, we would not have so wonderful a display of his power as when he suddenly veils them with clouds, withdrawing the light of the sun, and setting a new face as it were upon the world. He afterwards hints that in this way provision is made for all living creatures, for thus the herbs germinate, and the earth is supplied with the moisture which makes it fertile. Thus in connection with the proofs of his power God sets before our eyes those of his mercy and fatherly consideration for the human family; nay, he shows that he does not overlook even the wild beasts and cattle. Philosophers discover the origin of rain in the elements, and it is not denied that clouds are formed from the gross vapors which are exhaled from the earth and sea, but second causes should not prevent us from recognizing the providence of God in furnishing the earth with the moisture needed for fructification. As the earth chapped with heat shows its thirst by opening its mouth, so God on his part in sending rain distills drink for it. He might in other ways of a more secret kind give it strength to preserve it from failing, but this irrigation is something which passes before our eyes to image forth the continual care which he has over us.

9. Who gives to the cattle their food. By giving an instance he explains more clearly what he had said, of God’s providing food for every living creature. When he speaks of the cattle and the ravens being fed, and not of men, this is to give more emphasis to his argument. We know that it was for man’s sake the world was made at all, and endued with fertility and plenty; and in proportion as we are nearer in the scale of existence to God, he shows us the more of his goodness. But if he condescends to notice the brute creation, it is plain that to us he will be a nurse and a father. For the same reason he names the ravens, the most contemptible of all birds, to teach us that the goodness of God extends to every part of the world. When he says that their young cry unto God, he no doubt refers to their natural cry, but hints at the same time that they own that they must be in want unless God give them meat from heaven. As to the Jewish fable that the ravens desert their young ones as soon as put forth, and that worms are bred in the barks of the trees to feed them, this is one of their customary stories, never scrupling as they do, nor being ashamed, to invent anything, however unfounded, when a difficulty comes in the way. FE292A It is enough for us to know that the whole system of nature is so regulated by God, that not even the young ravens want their food, when with hoarse outcry they confess that they are in need, and that they cannot have it supplied except by God.

10. Not in the strength of the horse, etc. After the Psalmist has shown that there is proof of the divine goodness in every part of the world, he takes particular notice that men have no strength but what is given them from above, and this he adds with the express purpose of checking the pride by which almost all men are inflamed, and which leads them to trust in their own strength. The meaning of the passage is, that let man come in the preparation of his own strength, and with all the assistance’s that seem to him most prevalent, this will only issue in smoke and vanity; nay, that in arrogating the very least to himself, this will only be a hindrance in the way of the mercy of God, by which alone we stand. The strength of the horse is mentioned by synecdoche to denote any kind of protection. Not that God is displeased with those things in themselves considered which he has given us as helps, but it is necessary that we be withdrawn from a false confidence in them, for very commonly when any resource is at hand, we are foolishly intoxicated and lifted up with pride. He opposes the fear of God therefore to the strength both of men and of horses, and places his hope in his mercy, intimating that it is highly incumbent upon us to show our moderation in worshipping God with reverence and holiness, and depending upon his grace. Hence we learn that he only condemns that strength which would take from God the honor due to him.

<19E712>Psalm 147:12-14

12. Celebrate Jehovah, O Jerusalem! praise thy God, O Zion! 13. For he strengthens the bars of thy gates, he blesses thy children in the midst of thee. 14. Who maketh thy borders peace; with the fatness of the corn he satifieth thee.


12. Celebrate Jehovah, O Jerusalem! Having spoken in general of the mercies of God, he again addresses his discourse to the Lord’s people, who alone, as we have remarked already, can appreciate them, calling upon them to recognize with thanksgiving the blessings which others riot upon without acknowledgment. Under the name of Jerusalem, he comprises the whole Church, for in that place the faithful then held their religious assemblies, and flowed together as it were to the standard of the Lord. Although he will take occasion afterwards again to speak of the government of the world at large, he here commemorates the goodness of God as manifested to his own people, in protecting his own Church, bountifully cherishing it, enriching it abundantly with all blessings, and preserving it in peace and safety from all harm. When he says that the bars of the gates are strengthened by God, he means that the holy city was perfectly guarded by him from all fear of hostile attack. To the same effect is the other expression which comes after — that all its bounds were made peace. Enemies were under divine restraint so as to cause no disturbance or confusions. Not that the Church is always in a state of peace throughout its whole extent, and exempt from attack, but that God in a visible manner stretches forth his hand to repel these assaults, and it can securely survey the whole array of its enemies. A more extensive meaning indeed may be given to the term peace, which is often taken to signify a happy and prosperous condition. But as mention is made of bounds, the former sense seems most appropriate. The blessing of God enjoyed within is next spoken of, consisting in this, that the citizens dwell prosperously and happily in it, and are fed bountifully, even to satiety; which does not mean that the children of God always wallow in abundance. This might be the means of corrupting them, prone as our nature is to wantonness; but it suggests that they recognize the liberality of God in their daily food more clearly than others who want faith, and whom either abundance renders blind, or poverty vexes with deplorable anxiety, or covetousness inflames with a desire that never can be satisfied. God’s paternal favor was shown more particularly to our fathers under the law in the abundance of temporal provision, it being necessary to lead them forward to something higher by what was elementary.

<19E715>Psalm 147:15-20

15. While he sends forth his word to the earth, his word runneth very swiftly. 16. Who giveth snow like wool, fe293A and scattereth the hoar frost as ashes. 17. He casteth forth his ice like morsels: fe294A before his cold who can stand? FE295A 18. He shall send his word, and shall melt them: his breath shall blow, the waters shall flow. 19. He announces his words to Jacob, his edicts and his judgments to Israel. 20. He hath not done so to every nation, and his judgments he hath not showed them. Hallelujah.


15. While he sends forth, etc. He again touches upon some instances of the operation of God, everywhere to be seen in the system of nature. And as the changes which take place in the air, and upon the earth, and which should be considered evidences of his power, may perhaps be regarded by the world as the effect of chance, the Psalmist, before proceeding to speak of the snow, hoar frost, and ice, expressly declares, that earth is governed by his power and control. The sending forth of his word is nothing else than the secret influence by which he regulates and governs all things, for without his orders and appointment no movement could take place among the elements, nor could they be borne, now one way and now another, upon their own spontaneous impulse without his foregoing secret decree. He says, that his word runneth quickly, because, when once God has intimated his will, all things concur to carry it into effect. If we do not hold fast by this principle, however acutely we may investigate second causes, all our perspicacity will come to nothing. It is thus that Aristotle, for example, has shown such ingenuity upon the subject of meteors, that he discusses their natural causes most exactly, while he omits the main point of all, upon which the merest child, at least having any religion, has the superiority over him. He must have little discernment who, in the sudden snows and hoar-frosts, does not perceive how quickly the word of God runs. If, then, we would avoid a senseless natural philosophy, we must always start with this principle, that everything in nature depends upon the will of God, and that the whole course of nature is only the prompt carrying into effect of his orders. When the waters congeal, when the hail spreads through the air, and hoar frosts darken the sky, surely we have proof how effectual his word is. But if all these wonders produce no effect upon most men, at least the piercing cold which benumbs our bodies, should force us to recognize the power of God. When the heat of the sun scorches us in summer, and again, upon the succession of winter, all things are bound up, such a change as this, which must have appeared incredible had we not been accustomed to it, cries out loudly that there is a being who reigns above.

19. He announces his words to Jacob, etc. Here it is another word that is spoken of than what was formerly mentioned; for God speaks in a different way to the insensate works of his hands, which he silently subordinates to his will by secret laws impressed upon them, than he does to men who are endued with understanding, for these he teaches with articulate language, that they may obey him intelligently and with consent. Although the blessings formerly mentioned are not to be depreciated, they fall far short of this, that he has condescended to be the teacher of his chosen people, by communicating to them that religious doctrine which is a treasure of everlasting salvation. How little would it avail the Church that it were filled with the perishing enjoyments of time, and protected from hostile violence, did not its hope extend beyond this world. This, accordingly, is the grand proof of his love, that he has set before us in his word the light of eternal life. On this account it is appropriately mentioned here as the crowning part of true solid happiness. And let us learn from this, that we should not only receive the doctrine of God with reverential and holy obedience, but embrace it with affection, for we can conceive of nothing more delightful and desirable than that God should undertake our salvation, and give testimony of this by stretching out his hand to bring us to himself. For this is the design with which the doctrine has been given to us, that amidst the thick darkness of this world, and the devious errors into which Satan misleads the children of men, the great Father of us all may by it cast a foregoing light upon our path before gathering us to the inheritance of heaven. We are to notice, that the part which was sustained by Moses and the Prophets according to divine appointment is here ascribed to God himself, for we only put due honor upon the doctrine of religion, and estimate it at its proper worth when we rise to the consideration of God, who, in using the instrumentality of men, still claims to be considered our chief and only teacher. Thus its due majesty is assigned to the word from the person of its author. Again, he enhances the mercy shown by stating a comparison, intimating that this had not been done for other nations. For if it be asked why God preferred one people to others, this pre-eminence will certainly lead us to gratuitous election as its source, since we will find that the children of Israel did not differ from others in any excellency attaching to themselves, but because God passed by others and condescended to adopt them into his favor.


The more effectually to express how worthy God is to be praised in his works, he calls upon all creatures from above and below to sing his praises. He begins with angels, but immediately proceeds to address the brute creation and dumb elements, intimating, that there is no part of the world in which the praises of God are not to be heard, inasmuch as he everywhere gives proof of his power, goodness, and wisdom. He then comes to speak of men, whom God has constituted the proper heralds of his praises in this world. But as the unbelieving portion of them is both blind to the consideration of God’s works, and dumb to his praises, the Psalmist at the close appeals to the children of Israel, who were privileged with a special discovery of God, as principal witnesses. FE296A


<19E801>Psalm 148:1-6

1. Praise ye Jehovah from the heavens, praise him in the heights. 2. Praise him, all ye his angels; praise him, all ye his armies. 3. Praise him, ye sun and moon; praise him, ye shining stars. 4. Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters above the heavens. 5. Let them praise the name of Jehovah; for he commanded, and they were created. 6. And he established them for ever; he hath set for them a decree for ever, and it shall not pass beyond.


1. Praise Jehovah from the heavens. He seems here to include the stars as well as the angels, and, therefore, heaven itself, the air, and all that is gendered in it; for afterwards a division is made when he first calls upon angels, then upon the stars, and the waters of the firmament. With regard to the angels, created as they were for this very end — that they might be instant in this religious service, we need not wonder that they should be placed first in order when the praises of God are spoken of. Accordingly, in that remarkable vision which Isaiah describes, (<230603>Isaiah 6:3,) the cherubim cry out — “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts.” And in several other places of Scripture the angels are represented as praising God by such ascription’s. How, then, can zeal like theirs stand in need of exhortations? Or, if they require to be incited, what can be more unseemly than that we, who are so sluggish in the service, should assume the part of exhorting them to their duty? David, then, who did not equal the angels in zeal, but came far behind them, was not qualified to be an exhorter to them. But neither did this enter into his purpose; he would simply testify that it was the height of his happiness and desire to join in sacred concert with elect angels in praising God. And there is nothing unreasonable that, in order to stir himself up in the praises of God, he should call as companions upon the angels, although these run spontaneously in the service, and are fitter to lead the way. He calls them, in the second part of the verse — the armies of God; for they stand always ready to receive his orders. “Ten thousand times ten thousand surround his throne,” as Daniel says, (<270710>Daniel 7:10.) The same name is applied also to the stars, both because they are remarkable for the order which maintains among them, and because they execute with inconceivable quickness the orders of God. But the angels are here called armies, upon the same account as elsewhere principalities and powers, inasmuch as God exerts his power by their hands.

3. Praise him, ye sun and moon. This passage gives no countenance to the dream of Plato, that the stars excel in sense and intelligence. Nor does the Psalmist give them the same place as he had just assigned to angels, but merely intimates that the glory of God is everywhere to be seen, as if they sang his praises with an audible voice. And here he tacitly reproves the ingratitude of man; for all would hear this symphony, were they at all attent upon considering the works of God. For doth not the sun by his light, and heat, and other marvelous effects, praise his Maker? The stars when they run their course, and at once adorn the heavens and give light to the earth, do they not sound the praises of God? but as we are deaf and insensible, the Psalmist calls upon them as witnesses to reprove our indolence. By the heavens of heavens he no doubt means the spheres. Eclipses, and other things which we observe, plainly show both that the fixed stars are above the planets, and that the planets themselves are placed in different orbits. FE297A The excellency of this contrivance the Psalmist justly commends, speaking expressly of the heavens of heavens; not as if there were really more heavens than one, but to extol the matchless wisdom which God has shown in creating the heavens; for the sun, moon, and stars are not confusedly mixed together, but each has its own position and station assigned to it, and their manifold courses are all regulated. As under the name of the heavens he comprehends the air, or at least all the space from the middle region of the air upwards, he calls rains, the waters above the heavens. There is no foundation for the conjecture which some have made, that there are waters deposited above the four elements; and when the Psalmist speaks of these waters as being above, he clearly points at the descent of the rain. It is adhering too strictly to the letter of the words employed, to conceive as if there were some sea up in the heavens, where the waters were permanently deposited; for we know that Moses and the Prophets ordinarily speak in a popular style, suited to the lowest apprehension. It would be absurd, then, to seek to reduce what they say to the rules of philosophy; as, for example, in the passage before us, the Psalmist notes the marvelous fact that God holds the waters suspended in the air, because it seems contrary to nature that they should mount aloft, and also, that though fluid they should hang in vacant space. Accordingly it is said elsewhere, that they are held there as enclosed in bottles. (<193307>Psalm 33:7.) The Psalmist has borrowed the form of expression from Moses, who says — “that the waters were divided from the waters.” (<010106>Genesis 1:6.)

5. Let them praise the name, etc. As he speaks of things wanting intelligence, he passes to the third person, from which we infer that his reason for having spoken in the second person hitherto, was to make a deeper impression upon men. And he asks no other praise than that which may teach us that the stars did not make themselves, nor the rains spring from chance; for notwithstanding the signal proofs we constantly have before our eyes of the divine power, we with shameful carelessness overlook the great author. He says emphatically — for He Himself created, intimating that the world is not eternal, as wicked men conjecture, nor made by a concourse of atoms, but that this fair order of things which we see, suddenly sprang forth upon the commandment of God. And, speaking of the creation, he adds what is even more worthy of observation, that he gave that law to them which remains inviolable. For many, while they grant that the world was made by God, lapse from this into the senseless notion that now the order of nature stands of itself, and that God sits idle in the heavens. The Psalmist very properly insists, therefore, that the works of God above us in the heavens were not only made by him, but even now move forward at his disposal; and that not only was a secret power communicated to them at first, but while they go through their assigned parts, their operation and ministry to their various ends is dependent upon God.

<19E807>Psalm 148:7-10

7. Praise Jehovah! ye creatures from the earth, FE298A dragons, FE299A and all deeps. 8. Fire and hail, snow and ice, breath of the storm doing his word. 9. Mountains, and all hills; fruitful tree, and all cedars. 10. Wild beasts, and all cattle; reptile, and winged fowl.


7. Praise Jehovah, etc. He now comes to the lower parts of the world; although deviating at the same time from the exact order, he mixes up such things as are produced in the air — lightning’s, snow, ice, and storms. These should rather have been placed among the former class, but he has respect to the common apprehension of men. The scope of the whole is, that wherever we turn our eyes we meet with evidences of the power of God. He speaks first of the whales; for, as he mentions the abysses or deeps immediately afterwards, I have no doubt that by ynynt, tanninim, he means fishes of the sea, such as whales. It is only reasonable to think that matter for praising God should be taken from the sea, which is fraught with so many wonders. He then ascends to hail, snows, and storms, which he says fulfill the word of God; for it is not by an effect of chance that the heavens are clouded, or that a single drop of rain falls from the clouds, or that the thunders rage, but one and all of these changes depend upon the secret will of God, whether he will show his goodness to the children of men in irrigating the earth, or punish their sins by tempest, hail, or other calamities. The passage contains instruction of various kinds, as, for example, that when dearth impends, however parched the earth may be by long continued heat, God can promptly send rain which will remove the drought at his pleasure. If from incessant rains, on the other hand, the seed rot in the ground, or the crops do not come to maturity, we should pray for fair weather. If we are alarmed by thunder, we are taught to pray to God, for as it is he who sends it in his anger, so he can still all the troubled elements. And we are not to take up the narrow view of this truth which irreligious men advocate, that things in nature merely move according to the laws impressed upon them from the beginning, while God stands by idle, but are to hold firmly that God watches over his creatures, and that nothing can take place without his present disposal, as we have seen, <19A404>Psalm 104:4 that

“he maketh the winds his messengers,
and his ministers a flaming fire.”

<19E811>Psalm 148:11-14

11. Kings of the earth, and all peoples; princes, and all judges of the earth. 12. Young men, and also virgins; old men, with children. 13. Let them praise the name of Jehovah: for exalted is his name only, his praise is above the earth and the heavens. 14. And he hath exalted the horn of his people: praise is to all his merciful ones, to the children of Israel, a people which is near to him. Hallelujah.


11. Kings of the earth, etc. He now turns his address to men, with a respect to whom it was that he called for a declaration of God’s praises from creatures, both above and from beneath. As kings and princes are blinded by the dazzling influence of their station, so as to think the world was made for them, and to despise God in the pride of their hearts, he particularly calls them to this duty; and, by mentioning them first, he reproves their ingratitude in withholding their tribute of praise when they are under greater obligations than others. As all men originally stand upon a level as to condition, the higher persons have risen, and the nearer they have been brought to God, the more sacredly are they bound to proclaim his goodness. The more intolerable is the wickedness of kings and princes who claim exemption from the common rule, when they ought rather to inculcate it upon others and lead the way. He could have addressed his exhortation at once summarily to all men, as indeed he mentions peoples in general terms; but by thrice specifying princes he suggests that they are slow to discharge the duty, and need to be urged do it. Then follows a division according to age and sex, to show that all without exception are created for this end, and should unitedly devote their energies to it. As to old men, the more God has lengthened out their lives the more should they be exercised in singing his praises; but he joins young men with them, for though they have less experience from continued habit, it will be inexcusable if they do not acknowledge the great mercy of God in the vigor of their lives. In speaking of girls or virgins, the particle g, gam, also, is not merely expletive, but added to make the words more emphatical, conveying the truth that even the young women who are not so liberally educated as the male sex, being considered as born for domestic offices, will omit their duty if they do not join with the rest of the Church in praising God. It follows that all from the least to the greatest are bound by this common rule.

14. And hath exalted the horn, etc. As we saw in the former Psalm, that the perfections of God are to be seen more conspicuously in the Church than in the constitution of the world at large, the Psalmist has added this sentence, as to the Church being protected by the divine hand, and armed with a power against all enemies which secures its safety in every danger. By the horn, as is well known, is meant strength or dignity. Accordingly the Psalmist means that God’s blessing is apparent in his Church and among his chosen people, inasmuch as it only flourishes and is powerful through his strength. There is a tacit comparison implied between the Church of God and other hostile powers, for it needs divine guardianship as being exposed on all sides to attack. Hence the Psalmist infers that praise is to all the merciful ones of God, for they have ground given them in the singular goodness of his condescension both for self-congratulation and praise. In calling the children of Israel a people near unto God, he reminds them of the gracious covenant which God made with Abraham. For how came the nearness, except in the way of God’s preferring an unknown despised stranger to all nations? Nor are we to seek the cause of the distinction elsewhere than in the mere love of God. Though all the world equally belongs to God, he graciously discovered himself to the children of Israel, and brought them near to him, strangers as they were from God, even as are the whole race of Adam. Hence the words of Moses —

“When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, and distributed the peoples, he stretched forth his line to Jacob.” (<053208>Deuteronomy 32:8.)

He is to be considered, therefore, as pointing out the cause why God hath extended such signal blessings to a single people, and a people poor and despised — his adoption of them to himself.


If we may be allowed to compare this Psalm with the former ones, and the next, which is the last, the only difference is, that while the author of the Psalm, whoever he was, has hitherto spoken of God’s special care and protection of his Church in connection with the common providential government of the world, here he speaks of his benefits to the Church exclusively. In the next Psalm mention is only made of the power of God in general.


<19E901>Psalm 149:1-4

1. Sing ye to Jehovah a new song: his praise is in the congregation of the merciful. 2. Let Israel rejoice in his Maker: let the sons of Zion rejoice their king. fe291 3. Let them praise his name on the pipe, fe292 on the timbrel fe293 and the harp let them sing psalms to him. 4. Because Jehovah hath taken pleasure in his people; he will glorify the poor unto salvation.


1. Sing to Jehovah a new song. This exordium proves what I have just said, that the exhortation now given is addressed only to God’s people; for the singular goodness which is particularly extended to them affords more ample matter of praise. The probable conjecture is, that the Psalm was composed at the time when the people were begun to rejoice, or after they had returned to their native country from the Babylonish captivity. We will see from the context that a promise is given of recovery from their ruined condition. The object, I think, of the Psalmist, is to encourage them to expect the full and complete deliverance, some prelude of which had been suddenly and unexpectedly given in the permission to return. As the Church was not fully restored at once, but was with difficulty and only after a long period brought to a state of vigor, comfort such as this was much needed. The Spirit of God would also furnish a remedy for evils which were afterwards to break out; for the Church had scarcely begun to respire when it was again harassed with various evils, and oppressed by the cruel tyranny of Antiochus, which was followed up by a dreadful dispersion. The Psalmist had good reason therefore for animating the godly to look forward for the full accomplishment of the mercy of God, that they might be persuaded of divine protection until such time as the Messiah should arise who would gather all Israel. He calls this a new song, as we have noticed elsewhere, to distinguish it from those with which the saints commonly and daily praised God, for praise is their continued exercise. It follows that he speaks of some rare and unusual benefit, demanding signal and particular thanksgiving. And I am disposed to think that whoever may have been the author of the Psalm, he alludes to that passage in Isaiah, (<234210>Isaiah 42:10,) “Sing unto the Lord a new song,” when he speaks of the future restoration of the Church, and the eternal kingdom of Christ. In the second clause of the verse there is a promise implied. For though he proceeds to exhort the Lord’s people to sing God’s praises together, he hints along with this that the Church would coalesce again into one body, so as to celebrate God’s praises in the solemn assembly. We know that so scattered were the Israelites, that the sacred songs ceased to be sung, as elsewhere they complain of being called upon to sing —

“How shall we sing the songs of the Lord in a strange land?” (<19D704>Psalm 137:4.)

He bids them prepare therefore after this sad dispersion for holding their sacred assemblies again.

2. Let Israel rejoice in his Maker. He insists upon the same point, that the Lord’s people should rest firmly persuaded that their family had not been chosen out in vain from the rest of the world, but that God would be mindful of his covenant, and not allow the mercies which he had extended to them to fail or become extinct. Although they had been temporarily deprived of the inheritance of the land of Canaan, which was the pledge of their adoption, the Psalmist calls God their Maker, and king of the sons of Zion, to remind them that when adopted to a pre-eminency above other nations, this was a species of new creation. So in <194506>Psalm 45:6, the Israelites are called “the work of God’s hands,” not merely because they were like other men created by him, but because he had formed them anew, and distinguished them with a new honor, that, of being separated front the whole human race. The name king has a wider signification, intimating that as this people was at first formed by God, so it was with the view of their being ever governed by his power. The musical instruments he mentions were peculiar to this infancy of the Church, nor should we foolishly imitate a practice which was intended only for God’s ancient people. But the Psalmist confirms what has been already mentioned, that their religious assemblies which had been for a time interrupted would soon be restored, and they would call upon the name of the Lord in the due order of his worship.

4. For God hath taken pleasure in his people. We have spoken elsewhere of the verb hxr, ratsah here it means free favor, the Psalmist saying that it was entirely of his good pleasure that God had chosen this people to himself. From this source flows what is added in the second clause, that God would give a new glory of deliverance to the afflicted. In the Hebrew ywn[, anavim, means poor and afflicted ones, but the term came afterwards to be applied to merciful persons, as bodily afflictions have a tendency to subdue pride, while abundance begets cruelty. The Psalmist accordingly mitigates the sadness of present evils by administering seasonable consolation, that God’s people, when oppressed by troubles, might look forward with hope to the glorious deliverance which was yet unseen. The sum of the passage is — that God, who had fixed his love upon his chosen people, could not possibly abandon them to such miseries as they now suffered under.

<19E905>Psalm 149:5-9

5. The merciful shall rejoice in glory; they shall shout for joy upon their couches. fe294 6. The high praises of God are in their throat  fe295 and a two-edged sword is in their hand: 7. To execute vengeance upon the nations, castigations upon the peoples: 8. To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles with iron fetters: 9. To execute upon them the judgment written: this honor is to all his merciful ones. Hallelujah.


5. They shall rejoice. In making mention here of joy, jubilee, and the high praises of God, he shows still more clearly from the effects which it would produce, that he does not speak of a common benefit of God; for had not the deliverance of the people been of a remarkable kind, there would have been no occasion for such joy, and even triumph. And by these expressions he intimates that the people would not be brought back from exile to be immediately dispersed again, but to flourish in the enjoyment of every species of blessing. He on this account makes mention of couches, teaching them to expect daily rest under the divine protection. He declares that they would be furnished with arms and power, not only to ward off enemies, but to put them to flight on every side, so as to reduce to subjection kings and nations which formerly ruled over them. By swords of a double-mouth, or two-edged, are meant such as cut on both sides, for at that time swords had but one edge.

7. To execute vengeance, etc. Both during their exile and after their return from it, this might seem to be altogether incredible. Nor did it take place before the advent of Christ; for though the Machabaei and their posterity reduced the neighboring nations to subjection, this was but a faint prelude and earnest to direct the thoughts of the Lord’s people to what was approaching. But as Haggai prophesied that the glory of the second Temple would be greater than of the first, so here there is promised a more prosperous state than had ever existed. (<370209>Haggai 2:9.) Reduced as the Jews were in numbers, and low as was the state of things among them, the Psalmist announces to all nations which opposed and troubled them, that they would have the ascendancy. As they were yet tributary, and dwelt at Jerusalem only by sufferance, they were called to exercise faith in a promise which, to the judgment of sense, might appear visionary, and to raise their thoughts to the infinite power of God, which triumphs over all worldly obstacles. The vengeance spoken of is such as the Israelites would take, not under the influence of private resentment, but by commandment of God; and this we mention that none may infer that they are allowed to take vengeance for personal injuries.

The next verse, where mention is made of kings and nobles, is an amplification; for had he only spoken of peoples and nations, this might have been restricted to the common people and men of low condition. Here is something much greater — that kings and others of noble rank would be dragged to punishment in chains. But it is to be remembered, as I have just hinted, that but a small part of this splendid prospect was realized until Christ appeared; for any small increase of prosperity which the people enjoyed under the Machabaei was not worthy of any consideration, except in so far as by this help God sustained the drooping spirits of the people up to Christ’s advent. Here the prediction of Jacob is to be noticed —

“the scepter shall not depart from Judah, until Shiloh come.” (<014910>Genesis 49:10.)

But the Machabaei sprung from another tribe. We must, infer, therefore, that the regular order was then interrupted, and that to make the prosperous state of the people to have been based upon their victories, is building a castle in the air. And God would appear designedly to have removed the government from the tribe of Judah, lest this success should intoxicate the minds of his people; for most of them, through pride in these signal victories, overlooked the true and substantial deliverance. As the Psalmist treats here of the perfection of the prosperity of the people, it follows that he refers to the Messiah, that their expectation and desire of him might never cease either in their prosperity or adversity.

9. To perform the judgment, etc. He qualifies what he had said in the previous verses, in which he might have appeared to arm the Lord’s people for deeds of warlike cruelty. At first sight it might appear strange, that they who were called the merciful ones of God, should be sent out with drawn swords to commit slaughter, and pour out human blood; for what evidence was here of mercy? But when God himself is the author of the vengeance taken, it is just judgment, not cruelty. When mention is made of the judgment written, the Psalmist reminds the Jews that they were called to liberty by command of God — to that liberty which had been unjustly wrested from them by’ foreigners and tyrants, and that they could not be blamed for executing judgment written. Any exposition of the passage is faulty which does not proceed upon this as being the Psalmist’s design, that he would have the Jews to consider the divine mandate, not to proceed under the influence of private resentment, and to throw a rein over passion; saying upon the matter, that God’s children may not execute vengeance but when called to it, there being an end of all moderation when men yield themselves up to the impulse of their own spirits. Another question might arise here by way of objection. Christ is said to have come without crying or lifting up his voice, that he might not break the bruised reed, (<401220>Matthew 12:20,) and he inculcates the same character upon his followers. The answer is obvious, that Christ is also armed with an iron scepter, by which to bruise the rebellious, and is elsewhere described as stained with blood, as slaying his enemies on every side, and not being wearied with the slaughter of them. (<236302>Isaiah 63:2.) Nor is it surprising, considering the obstinacy which universally prevails in the world, that the mercy which is treated with such indignity should be converted into severity. Now the doctrine laid down in the passage admits of being rightly applied to our practice, in this way, that what is here said of the two-edged sword, applies more especially to the Jews, and not properly to us, who have not a power of this kind permitted; except, indeed, that rulers and magistrates are vested by God with the sword to punish all manner of violence; but this is something peculiar to their office. fe296 As to the Church collective, the sword now put into our hand is of another kind, that of the word and spirit, that we may slay for a sacrifice to God those who formerly were enemies, or again deliver them over to everlasting destruction unless they repent. (<490617>Ephesians 6:17.) For what Isaiah predicted of Christ extends to all who are his members, —

“He shall smite the wicked with the word of his mouth,
and shall slay them with the breath of his lips.”
(<231104>Isaiah 11:4.)

If believers quietly confine themselves within these limits of their calling, they will find that the promise of vengeance upon their enemies has not been given in vain. For when God calls us, as I have said above, to judgment written, he puts a restraint both upon our spirits and actions, so as that we must not attempt what he has not commanded. When it is said, in the close of the verse, that this honor is to all the merciful ones of God, he not only exhorts to the practice of piety, but gives us a support for our encouragement, lest we should think that we might be losers by exercising mercy and patience, as most men give vent to fury and rage, under the idea that the only way to defend their life is by showing the savageness of wolves. Although God’s people, therefore, have nothing of the strength of the giant, and will not move a finger without divine permission, ‘and have a calm spirit, the Psalmist declares, that they have an honorable and splendid issue out of all their troubles.

PSALM 150.

The argument of this Psalm is the same with that of the former.


<19FE001>Psalm 150:1-6

1. Praise God in his sanctuary : praise him in the firmament of his power. 2. Praise him in, his might; praise him for the plenitude of his greatness. 3. Praise him with sound of trumpet, fe297 praise him with psaltry and harp. 4. Praise him with timbrel fe298 and pipe, fe299 praise him upon chords, fe300 and the organ. fe301 5. Praise him upon cymbals of sound, praise him upon cymbals of jubilation fe302 6. Whatsoever breathes, let it praise God. Hallelujah.


1. Praise God in his sanctuary. This psalm in general commends the spiritual worship of God, which consists in sacrifices of praise. By the sanctuary there is little doubt that heaven is here meant, as is often the case elsewhere. The second clause is exegetical, for the same thing is repeated. But for sanctuary we read [yqr, rekia, that is, the expanse of heaven, to which is added the epithet of power, because there we have a proof of the matchless power of God, so that we cannot look to the heavens without being lost in admiration. As to the interpretation which some give — Praise God, ye angels who inhabit the heavens, and ye men who dwell under the firmament, it is forced and unnatural; for the Psalmist, in order to awaken men who grow languid in God’s praises, bids them lift their eyes towards the heavenly sanctuary. That the majesty of God may be duly reverenced, the Psalmist represents him as presiding on his throne in the heavens; and he enlarges upon the same truth in the second verse, celebrating his power and his greatness, which he had brought under our notice in the heavens, which are a mirror in which they may be seen. If we would have our minds kindled, then, to engage in this religious service, let us meditate upon his power and greatness, which will speedily dispel all such insensibility. Though our minds can never take in this immensity, the mere taste of it will deeply affect us. And God will not reject such praises as we offer according to our capacity.

3. Praise him with sound of trumpet. I do not insist upon the words in the Hebrew signifying the musical instruments; only let the reader remember that sundry different kinds are here mentioned, which were in use under the legal economy, the more forcibly to teach the children of God that they cannot apply themselves too diligently to the praises of God — as if he would enjoin them strenuously to bring to this service all their powers, and devote themselves wholly to it. Nor was it without reason that God under the law enjoined this multiplicity of songs, that he might lead men away from those vain and corrupt pleasures to which they are excessively addicted, to a holy and profitable joy. Our corrupt nature indulges in extraordinary liberties, many devising methods of gratification which are preposterous, while their highest satisfaction lies in suppressing all thoughts of God. This perverse disposition could only be corrected in the way of God’s retaining a weak and ignorant people under many restraints, and constant exercises. The Psalmist, therefore, in exhorting believers to pour forth all their joy in the praises of God, enumerates, one upon another, all the musical instruments which were then in use, and reminds them that they ought all to be consecrated to the worship of God.

6. Whatever breathes, etc. As the word hmn, neshamah, means breath, or blowing, and whatever is animate, or breathes, the words may be extended to every kind of living creatures, as we have seen in the preceding psalms that the declaration of God’s praises is assigned even to things wanting intelligence. But as men exclusively are often meant under the name of “flesh,” so we may very well suppose that the words have reference here to men, who, although they have vital breath in common with the brute creation, obtain by way of distinction the name of breathing, as of living creatures. I am led to think this for the following reason: As yet the Psalmist has addressed himself in his exhortations to the people who were conversant with the ceremonies under the law, now he turns to men in general, tacitly intimating that a time was coming when the same songs, which were then only heard in Judea, would resound in every quarter of the globe. And in this prediction we have been joined in the same symphony with the Jews, that we may worship God with constant sacrifices of praise, until being gathered into the kingdom of heaven, we sing with elect angels an eternal hallelujah.





l                Blessed is the man who walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly; And in the way of sinners doth not stand; And in the seat of scoffers doth not sit:

2               But in the law of the Lord is his delight; And in his law doth he meditate day and night.

3               He shall be like a tree planted near rivers of waters, Which shall yield its fruit in its season, And whose leaf shall not fade; And all that he doeth shall prosper.

4               Not so the ungodly: But they are like the chaff, which scatter doth the wind.

5               Therefore shall not stand the ungodly in the judgment, Nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous.

6               For know doth Jehovah the way of the righteous; But the way of the ungodly shall perish.


1               Why tumultuously rise do the Gentiles, And the peoples murmur in vain?

2               Confederated have the kings of the earth, And the princes have assembled together, Against Jehovah and against his Christ.

3               “Let us break asunder their bonds, “And cast away from us their yoke.”

4               He who dwelleth in heaven shall laugh; The Lord shall deride them.

5               Then shall he speak to them in his wrath, And in his hot displeasure he shall vex them.

6               “I have anointed my king, “Upon Zion, the mountain of my holiness.”

7               I will declare the decree: Jehovah hath said to me, “My Son art thou; I, this day, have begotten thee.

8               “Ask of me, and I will give thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance, “And for thy possession the uttermost parts of the earth.

9               “Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron;” As the vessel of a potter thou shalt dash them in pieces.”

10             And now, O ye kings! understand; Be instructed, O ye judges of the earth!

11             Serve Jehovah with fear, Rejoice with trembling.

12             Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, And ye perish from the way, When shall be kindled in a short time his wrath. Blessed are all who trust in him.


A Psalm of David, when he fled from the face of Absalom his son

1               O Lord! how are my oppressors multiplied! Many rise up against me,

2               Many say to my soul, “There is no help for him in God.” Selah.

3               And thou, O Jehovah! art a shield for me; My glory, and he that exalteth my head.

4               With my voice to the Lord have I cried, And he heard me from the mountain of his holiness. Selah.

5               I lay down and slept; I awaked, because the Lord sustains me.

6               I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, Who on all sides have set their camps against me.

7               Arise, O Lord l Save me, O my God! For thou hast smitten all my enemies upon the cheekbone; The teeth of the ungodly thou hast broken.

8               To the Lord belongeth salvation; Upon thy people is thy blessing. Selah.


To the Chief Musician on Neginoth. A Psalm of David

1               When I cry, answer me, O God of my righteousness! In distress thou hast enlarged me; Have pity upon me, and hear my prayer.

2               O ye sons of men! how long my glory will ye try to put to shame? Will ye love vanity, will ye seek after lying? Selah.

3               But know that chosen hath Jehovah the merciful man for himself: Jehovah will hear when I cry unto him.

4               Tremble and ye shall not sin; Discourse in your heart upon your bed, and be silent. Selah.

5               Sacrifice the sacrifices of righteousness, And trust in the Lord.

6               Many say, “Who will show us good? “ Lift thou up on us the light of thy countenance, O Jehovah!

7               Thou hast given joy to my heart More than theirs in the time that their corn and their wine are increased.

8               In peace [as if] with a multitude I will sleep and take rest, ff65 For thou, O Jehovah! in safety hast placed me, [though] alone.


To the Chief. Musician upon Nehiloth. A Psalm of David

1               My words do thou give ear to, O Jehovah! Attend to my speech.

2               Hearken to the voice of my cry, my King and my God! For to thee will I pray.

3               O Jehovah! in the morning do thou hear my voice; In the morning will I direct to thee and will watch.

4               For not a God taking pleasure in wickedness art thou; There shall not dwell with thee evil.

5               There shall not stand the foolish before thine eyes; Thou hatest all that commit iniquity.

6               Thou shalt destroy them that speak falsehood: The man of bloods and the deceitful man abominate shall Jehovah.

7               And I, in the multitude of thy mercy, will enter into thy house; I will worship in thy holy temple in thy fear.

8               O Jehovah! lead me in thy righteousness, because of my adversaries; Make straight before my face thy way.

9               For there is not in their mouth uprightness; Their inward part is deep depravity; A sepulcher that is open is their throat; With their tongues they deal deceitfully.

10             Cause them to err, O God! Let them fall from their counsels; In the multitude of their transgressions destroy them; For they have rebelled against thee.

11             And rejoice let all those who trust in thee, For ever let them exult; and cover thou them, And let those delight in thee that love thy name.

12             For thou shalt bless the righteous, O Jehovah! With thy good will as with a shield thou shalt encompass them.


To the Chief Musician on Neginoth, upon the Eighth. A Psalm of David

1               O Jehovah! do not in thy anger rebuke me, And do not in thy wrath chastise me.

2               Have mercy upon me, O Jehovah! for I am weak; Heal me, O Jehovah! for affrighted are my bones.

3               And my soul is exceedingly afraid: And thou, O Jehovah! — how long? —

4               Return, O Lord! deliver my soul; Save me for the sake of thy mercy.

5               For there is not in death any remembrance of thee; In the grave who shall acknowledge thee?

6               I have become wearied with my groaning; I make to swim every night my bed; With my tears my couch I water.

7               Waxed dim for vexation hath mine eye; It hath become old among all my persecutors.

8               Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity; For heard hath the Lord the voice of my weeping.

9               Heard hath the Lord my supplication; The Lord my prayer will receive.

10             Put to shame and confounded greatly be all my enemies; Let them turn back, and be ashamed suddenly.


Shiggaion of David, which he sung to Jehovah, upon the words
of Cush the Benjamite

1               O Jehovah, my God! in thee do I trust: Save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me:

2               Lest He seize, as a lion, upon my soul, And tear it in pieces while there is none to deliver it.

3               O Jehovah, my God! if I have done this, If there be iniquity in my hands,

4               If I have rewarded to him that was at peace with me evil, And have not delivered him that afflicted me without cause;

5               Pursue let the enemy my soul and take it, And let him cast down to the earth my life, And my glory in the dust let him hold down. Selah

6               Arise, O Jehovah! in thy anger; Lift up thyself against the fury of my enemies; And awake thou for me to the judgment which thou hast ordained.

7               And the congregation of peoples shall be round about thee: And on account of this, do thou on high return.

8               Jehovah shall judge the peoples: Judge me, O Jehovah! according to my righteousness, And according to the integrity which is in me.

9               Let come to an end, I pray, the malice of the wicked; And direct thou the righteous man: For he proves the hearts and the reins, the righteous God.

10             My shield is in God, Who saves the upright in heart.

11             God judgeth the righteous man, And him who despiseth God, daily.

12             If he turn not, his sword he will whet; His bow he hath bent, he hath made it ready.

13             And for it he hath prepared the instruments of death; He shall make fit his arrows for the persecutors.

14             Behold! he shall travail to bring forth iniquity, And he hath conceived wickedness, And he shall bring forth falsehood.

15             A pit he hath digged, and hollowed it out; And he hath fallen into the ditch which he hath made.

16             Return shall his wickedness upon his own head, And upon his own crown his violence shall descend.

17             I will praise Jehovah, according to his righteousness; And I will sing to the name of Jehovah, Most High.


To the chief Musician upon Hagittith. A Psalm of David

1               O Jehovah, our Lord! How wonderful is thy name in all the earth, To set thy glory above the heavens!

2               Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings Thou hast founded thy strength, because of thy adversaries, To put to flight the enemy and the avenger.

3               When! see thy heavens, the works of thy fingers; The moon and the stars which thou hast arranged:

4               What is man that thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that thou visitest him?

5               For thou hast made him lower a little than God, And with glory and honor thou hast crowned him.

6               Thou hast set him over the works of thy hands: All things thou hast put under his feet.

7               Sheep and oxen, all of them, And also the beasts of the fields;

8               The fowl of the heavens, and the fish of the sea, And whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.

9               O Jehovah, our Lord! How wonderful is thy name in all the earth!


To the chief Musician upon Hagittith. Almuth Laben. A Psalm of David

1               I will praise Jehovah with my whole heart; will recount all thy marvelous works.

2               I will rejoice and exult in thee; I will celebrate in Psalms thy name, O thou Most high!

3               When turned are my enemies backward, They fall and are put to flight at thy presence.

4               For thou hast maintained my judgment and my cause; Thou hast sat upon the throne a righteous judge.

5               Thou hast rebuked the heathen; Thou hast destroyed the ungodly; Their name thou hast blotted out for ever and ever.

6               O thou enemy! come to an end are desolations for ever; And cities thou hast destroyed; Perished has their memory with them.

7               And Jehovah for ever sitteth: His throne for judgment lie hath prepared.

8               And he shall judge the world in righteousness; He shall judge the peoples in rectitude.

9               And Jehovah will be a place of defense to the poor, And a protection in seasonable times in trouble.

10             And trust in thee shall those who know thy name: For thou forsakest not those who seek thee, O Jehovah!

11             Sing psalms to Jehovah, who dwelleth in Zion, Proclaim among the peoples his doings;

12             For in requiring blood, it lie hath remembered: He hath not forgotten the cry of the poor.

13             Have mercy upon me, O Jehovah! See my affliction from those who persecute me, O thou that liftest me up from the gates of death;

14             That I may recount all thy praises in the gates of the daughter of Zion; That I may exult in thy salvation.

15             Sunk are the heathen into the pit which they have made; In the net which they have hid taken are their own feet.

16             Known is Jehovah by executing judgment: In the work of his own hands the wicked is snared. Higgaion Selah.

17             Turned shall be the wicked into hell: All the nations that forget God.

18             For not for ever shall be forgotten the poor; The hope of the humble shall not perish for ever.

19             Arise, O Jehovah! let not man prevail: Let the heathen be judged in thy sight.

20             Put, O Jehovah! fear in them, That the heathen may know that mortal men they are. Selah.


1               Why, O Jehovah! standest thou afar off? And winkest at seasonable times in trouble?

2               In his pride the ungodly doth persecute the poor; Let them be caught in the devices which they imagine.

3               For praise himself doth the ungodly on account of the desire of his own soul; And the violent man blesseth himself: He despiseth Jehovah.

4               The ungodly, in the pride of his countenance doth not inquire; All his devices say, “There is not a God.”

5               Prosperous are his ways at all times; High are thy judgments before him; At all his enemies he puffeth.

6               He saith in his heart, “I shall not be moved from generation to generation,” Because he is not in adversity,

7               Of cursing his mouth is full, and of deceit, and of malice: Under his tongue are mischief and iniquity.

8               He will sit in the ensnaring places of the villages;  In his lurking places will he murder the innocent: His eyes against the poor will take their aim.

9               He will lie in wait in secret, as a lion in his den; He will lie in wait to catch the poor; He will catch the poor by drawing him into his net.

10             He will crouch low, he will cast himself down; Then shall fall by his strengths an army of the afflicted.

11             He hath said in his heart, “Forgotten it hath God; “He hideth his face, that he may not see it for ever.”

12             Arise, O Jehovah, God! lift up thy hand: Do not forget the poor.

13             Why do the wicked despise God? He saith in his heart, “Thou wilt not require it.”

14             Thou hast seen it; For mischief and oppression thou considerest, That thou mayest take them into thy own hand: Upon thee shall the poor leave; To the orphan thou wilt be an helper.

15             Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil man; Thou shalt seek his wickedness, and shalt not find it.

16             Jehovah is King for ever and ever; Perished are the heathen out of his land.

17             The desire of the needy thou hast heard, O Jehovah! Thou wilt direct their heart; Hear shall thine car:

18             That thou mayest judge the fatherless and the poor, That the man who is of earth may terrify no more.


To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               In Jehovah do I put my trust: How then say ye to my soul, “Flee ye into your mountain as a bird? “

2               Surely behold! the ungodly shall bend the bow, They have made ready their arrows upon the string, shoot in secret at the upright in heart.

3               Truly, the foundations are destroyed: The righteous, what hath he done?

4               Jehovah is in the palace of his holiness; Jehovah in heaven hath his throne; His eyes behold, his eyelids consider the children of men.

5               Jehovah will approve the righteous man; But the ungodly and him who loveth iniquity, hate doth his soul.

6               He will rain upon the ungodly snares, Fire and brimstone, and a storm of whirlwinds: This is the portion of their cup.

7               For the righteous Jehovah loveth righteousness; His countenance approveth the upright.


To the Chief Musician upon the Eighth. A Psalm of David

1               Save me, O Jehovah! for failed hath the merciful man, For wasted away are the faithful from among the children of men.

2               Deceit doth every one speak with his neighbor; With lips of flatteries, with a double heart do they speak.

3               Let Jehovah cut off all lips of flatteries, The tongue that great things doth speak:

4               Those who have said, “By our tongues we will be strengthened; “Our lips are our own; who is lord over us?”

5               “Because of the spoiling of the needy, “Because of the groaning of the poor, “Now will I arise,” say will Jehovah, “I will set in safety him for whom the wicked man layeth snares.”

6               The words of Jehovah are pure words; Silver melted in an excellent crucible of earth, purified seven times.

7               Thou, O Jehovah! wilt keep them; Thou wilt preserve him from this generation for ever.

8               On every side the ungodly walk; When they are exalted, reproach is to the children of men.


To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               How long, O Jehovah! wilt thou forget me for ever? How long wilt thou hide thy face from me?

2               How long shall I take counsel in my soul? And have sorrow in my heart daily? How long exalted shall be my enemy over me?

3               Look upon me, answer me, O Jehovah, my God! Enlighten my eyes, lest I sleep in death;

4               Lest my enemy say, “I have prevailed against him; “ And those who afflict me rejoice if I should fall.

5               But as for me, in thy goodness I trust; Exult shall my heart in thy salvation. I will sing to the Lord because he hath dealt bountifully with me.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm Of David

1               The fool hath said in his heart, “There is no God;” They have corrupted [all good order,] they have done abominable work. There is none that doeth good.

2               Jehovah from heaven looked down Upon the children of men, To see whether there were any that did understand, And seek after God.

3               Every one of them hath gone aside, Together putrid have they become: There is none that doeth good, not even one.

4               Have they no knowledge all these workers of iniquity? Who eat up my people as they eat bread. Upon the Lord they do not call.

5               There did they tremble with fear, For God is in the generation of the righteous.

6               The counsel of the poor ye deride, Because Jehovah is his hope.

7               Who shall give from Zion salvation to Israel? When turn back shall Jehovah the captivity of his people,  Rejoice shall Jacob, and exult shall Israel.


A Psalm of David

1               O Jehovah! who shall dwell in thy tabernacle? Who shall rest in the mountain of thy holiness?

2               He who walketh in integrity and doeth righteousness, And who speaketh truth in his heart,

3               He who detracteth not with his tongue, Who doeth not to his companion evil, And a calumnious report doth not raise up against his neighbor.

4               Despised in his eyes is the off cast; But those who fear the Lord he honoreth; When he hath sworn to his own hurt he doth not change.

5               His money he doth not put out to usury; And a present upon the innocent he doth not accept: He who doeth these things shall not be moved for ever.


Michtam. A Psalm Of David

1               Keep me, O God! For in thee do I trust.

2               Thou shalt say to Jehovah, “My Lord thou art; “My well doing extendeth not to thee.”

3               To the saints who are on the earth, And to the excellent; all my delight is in them.

4               Multiplied shall be their sorrows who offer to a stranger; I will not taste their libations of blood, Nor will I take their names in my lips.

5               Jehovah is the portion of my inheritance, and of my cup; Thou maintainest my lot.

6               The lines have fallen to me in pleasant places; Yea, an inheritance that is goodly hath fallen to me.

7               I will magnify Jehovah, who giveth me counsel; Even in the nights instruct me do my reins.

8               I have set Jehovah before me continually; Since he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.

9               Therefore glad is my heart, rejoice doth my tongue; Also my flesh dwelleth in confidence.

10             For thou wilt not leave my soul in the grave; Nor wilt thou make thy Holy One to see the pit.

11             Thou wilt make known to me the way of life; Fullness of joy is in thy countenance; Pleasures are at thy right hand for evermore.


A Prayer of David

1               Hear, O Jehovah! my righteousness; Attend to my cry; Hearken to my prayer, which is not in lips of deceit.

2               From the presence of thy countenance let my judgment go forth Let thine eyes behold uprightness.

3               Thou hast proved my heart; Thou hast visited it by night; Thou hast examined it, thou shalt not find any thing in it; My thought shall not pass beyond my mouth.

4               As for the works of men, by the word of thy lips I have taken heed of the ways of the destroyer.

5               Uphold my steps in thy paths, That my footsteps may not slide.

6               I have called upon thee, surely thou wilt hear me, O God! Incline thy ear to me, and hear my speech.

7               Make marvelous thy mercies, O thou Preserver of those who trust [in thee,] From those that exalt themselves against thy right hand.

8               Keep me as the apple, the daughter of the eye; In the shadow of thy wings hide me,

9               From the face of the ungodly who endeavor to destroy me — Of my enemies who in my soul besiege me.

10             In their own fat they have enclosed themselves; With their mouth they have spoken haughtily.

11             In our steps they have now encompassed me; eyes they have set to east down to the ground.

12             He is like a lion, he desireth to seize his prey, And like a lion’s whelp which lurketh in secret places.

13             Arise, O Jehovah! confront him, lay him prostrate; Deliver my soul from the ungodly man by thy sword

14             From men by thy hand, O Jehovah! — From men who are of long duration, Whose portion is in life, Whose belly thou fillets with thy secret, goods: Filled to the full are their children with them, And their residue they leave to their babes.

15             As for me in righteousness I shall behold thy face; I shall be satisfied when I shall awake with thy likeness.


To the Chief Musician. Of the servant of Jehovah, David, who spake to Jehovah the words of this song, in the day that Jehovah delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from the hand of Saul. And he said,

1               I will love thee, O Jehovah! my strength;

2               Jehovah my rock, my fortress, and my deliverer; My God, my rock, I will hope in him: My shield and the horn of my salvation, my refuge.

3               Upon the praised Jehovah will I call; And from my enemies I shall be saved.

4               Encompassed me had the cords of death. The torrents of ungodliness had affrighted me.

5               The cords of the grave had encompassed me; Prevented me had the snares of death.

6               In my distress I called upon Jehovah, And to my God I cried: And he heard from his temple my voice, And my cry before him came, [even] into his ears.

7               Then shake and tremble did the earth; And the foundations of the mountains were troubled and shaken, Because he was wroth.

8               There ascended smoke out of his nostrils, And fire proceeding from his mouth consumed; Coals were kindled by it.

9               And he bowed the heavens and descended; And thick darkness was under his feet.

10             And he rode upon a cherub and flew; And was carried upon the wings of the wind.

11             He made darkness his hiding place; Round about him his pavilion was dark waters, And the clouds of the skies.

12             At the brightness which was before him his clouds passed away, [There were] hail-storm, and coals of fire.

13             And thunder in the heavens did Jehovah, And the Most High sent forth his voice; [There were] hailstorm and coals of fire.

14             And he sent out his army and scattered them; And lightnings he multiplied, and put them into confusion.

15             And seen were the abysses of the waters, And disclosed were the foundations of the world, At thy rebuke, O Jehovah! At the blast of the breath of thy nostrils.

16             He sent from on high, he took me; He drew me from waters great.

17             He delivered me from my enemy [that was] strong, And from my adversary; Because they were stronger than I.

18             They had prevented me in the day of my calamity; And Jehovah was a support for me.

19             And he brought me forth into a wide place; He rescued me because he wished well to me.

20             Rewarded me hath Jehovah according to my righteousness; According to the purity of my hands he hath repaid me;

21             Because I have kept the ways of Jehovah, And have not impiously departed from my God;

22             Because all his judgments I have had before me, And his statutes I have not removed from me.

23             And I have been upright with him, And have kept me from my iniquity.

24             And repaid me hath Jehovah according to my righteousness According to the purity of my hands before his eyes.

25             With the merciful thou wilt deal mercifully, With a man of uprightness thou wilt show thyself upright.

26             With the pure thou wilt be pure, And with the perverse thou wilt deal perversely.

27             For thou the afflicted people wilt save, And the haughty eyes thou wilt east down.

28             For thou shalt light my lamp, O Jehovah! My God shall enlighten my darkness.

29             For by thee I shall break through the wedge of a troop, And by my God I shall leap over a wall.

30             As for God perfect is his way; The word of Jehovah [is] refined; A shield is He to all who confide in him.

31             For who is God besides Jehovah? And who is strong except our God?

32             It is God who hath girded me with strength, And hath made perfect my way.

33             He maketh my feet like those of hinds, And upon my high places he hath set me.

34             He traineth my hands to the battle, And broken will be a bow of steel by my arms.

35             And thou hast given me the shield of thy salvation, And thy right hand hath sustained me, And thy clemency hath increased me.

36             Thou hast enlarged my steps under me, And my ankles shall not totter.

37             I will pursue my enemies and will seize them; Nor will I return until I have consumed them.

38             I have afflicted them, and they were not able to rise; They have fallen under my feet.

39             Thou hast girded me with might for the battle; Thou hast bowed down my enemies under me.

40             And of my enemies thou hast given me the neck, And [as for] my haters I will destroy them.

41             They shall cry aloud, and there shall be no Savior for them; To Jehovah, but he shall not answer them.

42             And I will bruise them to powder as dust before the wind; As the mire of the streets I will tread upon them.

43             Thou shalt deliver me from the contentions of the people; Thou shalt make me head of the nations; A people whom I have not known shall serve me.

44             At the hearing of the ear they shall obey me; The children of strangers shall lie to me;

45             The children of strangers shall lose courage, And tremble from within their places of concealment.

46             Let Jehovah live and blessed be my strength, And let the God of my salvation be exalted:

47             The God who giveth vengeance for me, And subdueth peoples under me.

48             My deliverer from my enemies: Yea, from those who had risen up against me thou hast lifted me up: From the man of violence thou hast rescued me.

49             Therefore will I praise thee, O Jehovah! among the Gentiles, And to thy name will I sing.

50             Who worketh great deliverances for his king, And showeth mercy to his anointed, [even to] David, And to his seed for ever.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               The heavens recount the glory of God; And the works of his hands proclaim doth the expanse.

2               Day unto day poureth forth speech; And night unto night publisheth knowledge.

3               There is no speech and no language, Where is not heard their voice.

4               Through all the earth hath gone forth their writing, And to the extremity of the world their words: For the sun he hath set a tabernacle in them,

5               And he as a bridegroom goeth forth from his chamber; He exulteth as a strong man to run his course.

6               From one extremity of the heavens is his going forth, And his circuit to the utmost limits thereof, And no person is hidden from his heat.

7               The law of the Lord is perfect, restoring the soul; The testimony of Jehovah is faithful, instructing in wisdom the babes;

8               The statutes of Jehovah are right, rejoicing the heart; The commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes;

9               The fear of Jehovah is clean, enduring for ever; The judgments of Jehovah are truth, they are justified together.

10             More desirable [are they] than gold, and much fine gold; And sweeter than honey, and the dropping of honeycombs.

11             Moreover, thy servant is made circumspect by them; And in their observance the reward is great.

12             His errors who can understand? From my hidden sins cleanse thou me.

13             Likewise from presumptuous sins restrain thou thy servant, That they may not have dominion over me; Then upright shall I be and clean from much wickedness.

14             Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart be acceptable Before thee, O Jehovah! my strength and my Redeemer.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm Of David

1               May Jehovah hear thee in the day of trouble!

2               May he send help to thee from the sanctuary! And out of Zion sustain thee!

3               May he be mindful of all thy offerings! And thy holocaust may he make flit! Selah.

4               May he give to thee according to thy heart! And all thy counsel may he fulfill!

5               That we may exult in thy salvation, And in the name of our God erect a banner, When Jehovah shall fulfill all thy petitions.

6               Now I have known that Jehovah hath saved his anointed; He will hear him from the heavens of his sanctuary, In the mightiness of the salvation of his right hand.

7               Some trust in chariots, and some in horses; But the name of Jehovah our God we will remember.

8               They are bowed down and fallen; But we are risen up and stand erect.

9               O Jehovah! do thou save; Let the King hear us in the day that we call upon him.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm Of David

1               O Jehovah! in thy strength rejoice shall the king, And in thy salvation how greatly shall he exult!

2               The desire of his heart thou hast given him, And what he uttered with his lips, thou hast not denied him. Selah.

3               For thou shalt prevent him with blessings of good; Thou shalt place upon his head a crown of gold.

4               Life he asked from thee; Thou hast given him length of days for ever and ever.

5               Great is his glory in thy salvation: Splendor and beauty thou hast put upon him.

6               For thou hast set him [to be] blessings for ever: Thou hast gladdened him with joy before thy countenance.

7               For the king trusteth in Jehovah; And through the goodness of the Most High, he shall not be moved

8               Find out shall thy hand all thy enemies; Thy right hand shall find out thy haters.

9               Thou shalt put them as in a furnace of fire in the time of thy wrath, O Jehova! In his wrath he shall overwhelm them, And consume them shall the fire.

10             Their fruit from the earth thou wilt destroy, And their seed from among the sons of men. 1l. For they have spread out against thee evil; They have devised against thee a stratagem which they could not accomplish.

12             For thou wilt set them as a butt; On thy strings thou shalt make ready thy arrows against their faces.

13             Be thou exalted, O Jehovah! in thy strength, Then we will sing and celebrate in psalms thy power.


To the Chief Musician. Upon the hind of the morning. A Psalm Of David

1               My God! my God! why hast thou forsaken me? [Why art thou] far from my help, from the words of my roaring?

2               O my God! I cry by day, and thou dost not hear: And in the night, and am not silent.

3               Yet thou art holy, Inhabiting the praises of Israel.

4               In thee trust did our fathers: They trusted, and thou didst deliver them.

5               To thee they cried, and were saved: In thee they trusted, and were not put to shame.

6               But I am a worm, and not a man; The reproach of men, and despised of the people.

7               All who see me scoff at me: They thrust out the lip, they shake the head.

8               “He hath devolved,” say they, “upon Jehovah, his cause, let him rescue him, “Let him deliver him, since he hath a favor for him.”

9               Surely it is thou who didst take me out of the womb, Causing me to confide upon the breasts of my mother.

10             Upon thee I was cast from the womb: From the belly of my mother my God art thou.

11             Depart not far from me, for trouble is near, For there is no helper.

12             Encompassed me have bulls [that are] strong, The bulls of Bashan have beset me.

13             They have opened upon me their mouth, As a lion ravening and roaring.

14             Like water I have flowed, ff66 And disjointed have been  ff67 all my bones: My heart hath been  ff68 like wax, It hath been  ff69 melted in the midst of my bowels.

15             Dried up as a potsherd hath been  ff70 my strength, And my tongue cleaveth to my jaws; And to the dust of death thou hast brought me.

16             For encompassed me have dogs; The assembly of the wicked have surrounded me: They have pierced my hands and my feet.

17             I will count all my bones; As for them they look and gaze upon me.

18             They divide my garments among them; Upon my vesture they cast the lot.

19             And thou, O Jehovah! be not far from me; Thou who art my strength, to my aid hasten.

20             Rescue from the sword my soul; From the hand of the dog my only one.

21             Save me from the mouth of the lion, And from the horns of unicorns do thou hear me.

22             I will declare thy name to my brethren; In the midst of the assembly will I praise thee.

23             Saying, “Ye who fear Jehovah praise him: “All ye the seed of Jacob glorify him: “And stand in awe of him, all ye the seed of Israel.

24             “For he hath not despised nor disdained the poor; “Nor hath he hidden his face from him; “And when he cried to him, he heard him.”

25             From thee shall proceed my praise in the congregation great; My vows will I pay before them that fear him.

26             Eat shall the poor, and be satisfied; They shall praise Jehovah who seek him; Your heart shall live for ever.

27             Remember and turn to Jehovah shall all the ends of the earth; And prostrate themselves before his face shall all the tribes of the Gentiles.

28             For Jehovah’s is the kingdom, That he may have dominion among the Gentiles.

29             Eat and worship shall all the fat ones of the earth: Before his face shall bow all who are going down to the dust; And he who his own soul doth not quicken.

30             Their seed shall serve him, It shall be registered to the Lord for a generation.

31             They shall come and shall declare his righteousness, To a people that shall be born, because he hath done [this.],


A Psalm of David

1               Jehovah is my shepherd, therefore I shall not want any thing.

2               In pastures of grass he maketh me to lie down; To waters gently flowing he leadeth me.

3               My soul he restoreth: He leadeth me by the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.

4               Though I should walk in the valley of the shadow of death, I will not fear evil, because thou art with me; Thy staff and thy crook they comfort me.

5               Thou wilt prepare before me a table in the presence of my persecutors; Thou wilt anoint with oil my head; My cup overfloweth.

6               Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, And I shall dwell in the house of Jehovah for a length of days.


A Psalm of David

1               Jehovah’s is the earth, and the fullness thereof; The world, and those who dwell therein.

2               For he upon the seas hath founded it, And upon the floods he hath arranged it.

3               Who shall ascend into the mountain of Jehovah? Who shall stand in the place of his holiness?

4               He who is clean in hands and pure in heart, Who hath not lifted up to vanity his soul, And hath not sworn deceitfully.

5               He shall receive blessing from Jehovah, And righteousness from the God of his salvation.

6               This is the generation of those who seek him, Of those who seek thy face, O Jacob! Selah.

7               Lift up, O ye gates! your heads, And be ye lifted up, ye doors everlasting! And enter shall the King of Glory.

8               Who is this King of Glory? Jehovah strong and mighty, Jehovah mighty in power. ff71

9               Lift up, O ye gates! your heads, Lift up, I say, ye doors everlasting! And enter shall the King of Glory.

10             Who is this King of Glory? Jehovah of armies — He is the King of Glory. Selah.


Of David

1               To thee, O Jehovah! my soul have I lifted up.

2               O my God! in thee have I hoped: Let me not be put to shame, Let not my enemies rejoice over me.

3               Yea none who wait on thee shall be put to shame: They shall be ashamed who deal perfidiously without cause.

4               Thy ways, O Jehovah! make me to know, Thy paths teach thou me.

15             Direct me in thy truth, and teach me; For thou art the God of my salvation; For thee I have waited all the day.

6               Remember thy compassions, O Jehovah! And thy loving-kindnesses; for they have been from everlasting.

7               The transgressions of my youth, and my iniquities do not thou remember According to thy clemency remember thou me, For the sake of thy goodness, O Jehovah!

8               Good and upright is Jehovah, Therefore he will teach sinners in the way.

9               He will guide the poor in judgment, And will teach the poor his way.

10             All the ways of Jehovah are mercy and truth, To those who keep his covenant and his testimony.

11             For the sake of thy name, O Jehovah! Be merciful to my iniquity, for great is it.

12             Who is the man that feareth Jehovah? He will teach him in the way which he should choose.

13             His soul in good shall dwell, And his seed shall inherit the land.

14             The counsel of Jehovah is to those who fear him, That he may make known to them his covenant.

15             My eyes are continually towards Jehovah, For he will bring out of the net my feet.

16             Have respect to me, take pity upon me, For solitary and poor am I.

17             The afflictions of my heart are enlarged; Out of my distresses do thou bring me.

18             Behold my affliction and my travail, And take away all my sins.

19             Behold my enemies, for they are multiplied; And with a violent hatred they hate me.

20             Guard my soul, and rescue me, That I may not be ashamed; For I have trusted in thee.

21             Let integrity and rectitude preserve me; Because I have waited for thee.

22             Redeem O God! Israel from all his troubles.


Of David

1               Judge me, O Jehovah: Because in my integrity I have walked, And in Jehovah have trusted, I shall not stumble.

2               Prove me, O Jehovah! and try me, Examine my reins and my heart.

3               For thy goodness is before my eyes; Therefore I have walked in thy truth.

4               I have not sat with men of vanity, And with crafty men I will not go in.

5               I hate the assembly of transgressors, And with the wicked I will not sit.

6               I will wash in purity my hands, And will encompass thy altar, O Jehovah!

7               To cause to be heard the voice of praise, And to tell of all thy marvelous deeds.

8               O Jehovah! I have loved the habitation of thy house, And the place of the dwelling of thy glory.

9               Gather not with ungodly men, my soul, Nor with men of bloods my life.

10             For in their hands is maliciousness, And their right hand is full of bribes.

11             But as for me in my integrity I will walk: Redeem me, and have mercy upon me.

12             My foot hath stood in uprightness: In the congregations will I bless thee, O Jehovah!


Of David

1               Jehovah is my light and my salvation, Whom shall I fear? Jehovah is the strength of my life, Of whom shall I be afraid?

2               When approach against me did the wicked, To devour my flesh — My oppressors and my enemies against me — They stumbled and fell.

3               If there should encamp against me a camp, My heart shall not fear: If there should rise against me war, In this shall I have confidence.

4               One thing have I requested from Jehovah — This will I follow after — That I may dwell in the house of Jehovah all the days of my life, To behold the beauty of Jehovah, To survey his temple.

5               For he shall hide me in his pavilion in the day of evil; He shall conceal me in the secret [recess] of his tent, Upon a rock he will set me.

6               And now he shall exalt my head Above my enemies who surround me: And I will sacrifice in his tabernacle sacrifices of triumph; I will sing and will celebrate in psalms Jehovah.

7               Hear, O Jehovah! my voice with which I cry; Have mercy upon me and answer me.

8               To thee my heart hath said, “Seek ye my face; “ Therefore thy face, O Jehovah! will I seek.

9               Hide not thy face from me; Cast not away in wrath thy servant: My strength thou hast been, do not desert me, And do not forsake me, O God of my salvation!

10             When my father and my mother shall forsake me, Jehovah shall receive me.

11             Teach me, O Jehovah! thy way, And lead me in the path of rectitude because of my enemies.

12             Do not deliver me to the desire of my oppressors, For risen up against me have false witnesses, And he who uttereth violence.

13             Unless I had believed to see the goodness of Jehovah, in the land of the living —.

14             Wait thou on Jehovah; Be strong, and he will comfort thy heart, And wait thou on Jehovah.


Of David

1               Unto thee, O Jehovah! will I cry; O my strength! hold not thy peace from me Lest if thou shouldst be silent to me, I then become like those who descend into the grave.

2               Hear the voice of my prayers when I cry to thee, When I lift up my hands to the sanctuary of thy holiness. 3, Draw me not away with ungodly men, And with the workers of iniquity, Who speak peace  ff72 with their neighbors, When in their hearts is malice.

4               Give them according to their works, And according to the wickedness of their doings: According to the work of their hands give them, Render their reward to them.

5               Because they do not consider the doing of Jehovah, Nor the work of his hands, Let him destroy them and not build them up.

6               Blessed be Jehovah! For he hath heard the voice of my supplications.

7               Jehovah is my strength and my shield; In him trusted hath my heart, and I have been helped: Therefore exult shall my heart, And with my song will I celebrate him.

8               Jehovah is strength to them, And the strength of the salvations of his Anointed is He.

9               Save thy people, and bless thy inheritance; Feed them and exalt them for ever.


A Psalm of David

1               Ascribe to Jehovah: ye sons of the mighty — Ascribe to Jehovah glory and strength.

2               Ascribe to Jehovah the glory of his name; Worship before Jehovah in the brightness of his sanctuary.

3               The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters; The God of glory thundereth; Jehovah is upon the waters great.

4               The voice of Jehovah is in strength, The voice of Jehovah is in majesty.

5               The voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars; Break, I say, doth Jehovah the cedars of Lebanon.

6               And he maketh Lebanon to leap like a calf, And Sirion like the son of the unicorns.

7               The voice of Jehovah striketh out flames of fire.

8               The voice of Jehovah maketh the desert to tremble. Jehovah maketh to tremble the desert of Kadesh.

9               The voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to bring forth, And discovereth the forests, And all meanwhile in his temple speak his praise.

10             Jehovah over the flood presideth, Preside, I say, doth Jehovah [as] King for ever.

11             Jehovah strength to his people will give; Jehovah will bless his people with peace.


A Psalm of a Song at the dedication of the house of David

1               I will exalt thee, O Jehovah! for thou hast raised me up, And hast not made glad my enemies over me.

2               O Jehovah, my God! I have cried to thee, And thou hast healed me.

3               O Jehovah! thou hast brought up from the grove my soul; Thou hast quickened me from among those who descend into the pit.

4               Sing to Jehovah, O ye his meek ones! And acknowledge the memorial of his holiness.

5               For there is only a moment in his anger, But life in his favor: In the evening will lodge weeping, And in the morning shall come exultation.

6               But as for me I had said in my tranquillity, “I shall not be moved for ever.”

7               O Jehovah! in thy good pleasure Thou hast established strength to my mountain; Thou didst hide thy face, I was confounded.

8               O Jehovah! to thee I cried, And to my Lord I made supplication.

9               What profit shall there be in my blood, When I descend into the pit? Celebrate thee shall the dust? Shall it proclaim thy truth?

10             Hear, O Jehovah! and have mercy upon me; O Jehovah! be thou a helper to me.

11             Thou hast turned my mourning into dancing for me; Thou hast loosed my sackcloth, And girded me with gladness.

12             That celebrate thee in psalms may my glory, and not be silent: O Jehovah, my God! for ever will I celebrate thee.


To the Chief Musician,. A Psalm of David

1               In thee, O Jehovah! have I trusted, Let me not be put to shame for ever: In thy righteousness deliver me.

2               Incline to me thy ear, Speedily do thou rescue me; Be to me for a rock of strength, For a house of defense to save me.

3               For my rock, and my fortress art thou: And for the sake of thy name thou wilt direct and guide me.

4               Extricate me from the net, which they have hidden for me, For thou art my strength.

5               Into thy hand I will commend my spirit; For thou hast redeemed me, O Jehovah! God of truth.

6               I hate all those who regard lying vanities; But as for me in Jehovah I have trusted.

7               I will exult and rejoice in thy goodness; Because thou hast looked upon my affliction: Thou hast known in distresses my soul:

8               And thou hast not shut me up in the hand of the enemy: But thou hast set at large my feet.

9               Have pity upon me, O Jehovah! for trouble is to me: My eye hath consumed away for vexation; my soul and my belly.

10             My life hath riffled through grid; And my years with groaning: My strength hath sunk through my sorrow, And my bones have moldered away.

11             On account of all my enemies I was a reproach, Yea to my neighbors exceedingly, And a terror to my acquaintances; And those who saw me abroad fled from me.

12             I was forgotten as a dead man from the heart; I became like a vessel [that is] broken.

13             For I have heard the slander of many: Fear hath seized me on every side, While they consult together against me, And to take away my life do devise.

14             But as for me, in thee have I trusted, O Jehovah! I have said, “My God art thou.”

15             In thy hand are my times; Rescue me from the hand of my enemies, And from those who persecute me.

16             Cause to shine upon thy servant thy face, Save me in thy goodness.

17             O Jehovah! let me not be put to shame, For I have called upon thee: Let the wicked be put to shame, Let Gem be silent in the grave.

18             Let the lips of lying be put to shame, Which speak against the righteous a hard thing in pride and scorn.

19             How great is thy goodness, Which thou hast hidden for those who fear thee! Which thou hast performed for those who confide in thee, Before the sons of men!

20             Thou shalt hide them in the hidden place of thy presence, From the prides of man; Thou shalt conceal them as in a tent, From the strife of tongues.

21             Blessed be Jehovah! For he hath made wonderful his goodness towards me, As in a city fortified.

22             But as for me, I had said in my fear, “I am cast away from before thy eyes: “ Yet truly thou hast heard the voice of my supplications, When I cried unto thee.

23             Love Jehovah, all ye meek ones of his! The faithful preserve doth Jehovah, And he repayeth plentifully him who behaveth proudly. 2d. Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your heart, All ye who hope in Jehovah.


Of David. Giving instruction

1               Blessed are those to whom is remitted iniquity, And whose transgression is covered.

2               Blessed is the man to whom Jehovah doth not impute iniquity, And in whose spirit there is not guile.

3               When I kept silence, waste away did my bones, And when I wailed all the day.

4               For by day and night heavy upon me was thy hand; Turned into the drought of summer was my greenness. Selah.

5               My sin I have acknowledged to thee, And my iniquity I have not hid. I said, “I will confess against myself my wickedness to Jehovah;” And thou didst remit the guilt of my sin. Selah.

6               On this account, pray to thee shall every man, that is meek, In the time of finding thee: So that in a flood of many waters, To him they shall not come near.

7               Thou art a hiding-place to me; From trouble thou shalt preserve me; With songs of deliverance thou shalt encompass me. Selah.

8               I will instruct thee, And teach thee the way wherein thou shouldest walk: I will counsel thee with mine eye.

9               Be ye not like a horse, or like a mule, Which have not understanding: With bit and bridle his jaws thou shalt bind, Lest they kick against thee.

10             Many sorrows shall be to the wicked: But the man who hopeth in Jehovah goodness shall encompass.

11             Rejoice in Jehovah, and exult, ye righteous! Sing all ye who are upright in heart.


1               Exult, ye righteous! in Jehovah: For to the upright comely is praise.

2               Celebrate Jehovah upon the harp; Upon the nablure, ff73 and instrument of ten strings, sing psalms to him

3               Sing to him a song that is new; Ardently sing with shouting.

4               For right is the word of Jehovah, And all his works are in faithfulness.

5               He loveth righteousness and judgment: Of the goodness of Jehovah fill is the earth.

6               By the word of Jehovah the heavens were established, And by the breath of his mouth all their host.

7               He gathered together as an heap the waters of the sea; He laid up as in treasure houses the deeps.

8               Let all the earth fear Jehovah; Of him let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe.

9               For he spake, and it was; He commanded, and it stood.

10             Jehovah scattereth the counsel of the Gentiles, He rendereth fruitless the imaginations of the peoples.

11             The counsel of Jehovah for ever shall stand, The thoughts of his heart from age to age.

12             Blessed is the people to whom Jehovah is their God, The people whom he hath chosen for: in inheritance to himself.

13             From heavens looked down hath Jehovah, He hath beheld all the sons of Adam.

14             From the dwelling place of His throne, He hath looked on all the inhabitants of the earth.

15             He who hath fashioned together their hearts, Who understandeth all their works.

16             There is not a king saved by the multitude of an host, Nor a giant rescued by greatness of strength.

17             Fallacious is a horse for safety, And by the greatness of his strength he will not deliver.

18             Behold! the eye of Jehovah is upon those who fear him, [Upon those] who hope in his mercy;

19             To rescue from death their souls, To keep them alive in famine.

20             Our soul waiteth for Jehovah: Our help and our shield is he.

21             Surely in him rejoice shall our heart, Because in his holy name we will trust.

22             Let thy mercy be upon us, O Jehovah! According as we have trusted in thee.


Of David when he changed his countenance before Abimelech, who expelled him, and he departed

1               I will bless Jehovah at all times: Continually his praise shall be in my mouth.

2               In Jehovah make her boast shall my soul: Hear shall the humble and be glad.

3               Magnify? Jehovah with me, And let us exalt his name together.

4               I sought. Jehovah, and he answered me, And from all my fears he delivered me.

5               They shall look to him, and shall flow to him, And their faces shall not he ashamed.

6               This poor man cried,: and Jehovah heard him, And from all his distresses saved him.

7               Encamp doth the angel of Jehovah about those who fear him, And will deliver them.

8               Taste ye and see that good is Jehovah: Blessed is the man who trusteth in him.

9               Fear Jehovah, ye saints of his; For nothing is lacking to those who fear him.

10             The young lions suffer want and are famished: But those who fear Jehovah shall not want any good thing.

11             Come ye children, hearken to me, The fear of Jehovah I will teach you.

12             Who is the man that desireth life, Loving days in which he may see good?

13             Keep thy tongue from evil, And thy lips from speaking deceit.

14             Depart from evil, and do good; Seek peace, and pursue it.

15             The eyes of Jehovah are upon the righteous, And his ears [are open] to their cry.

16             The face of Jehovah is upon those who do evil, To blot out from the earth their remembrance.

17             They cried, and Jehovah heard them, And from all their distresses he delivered them.

18             Near is Jehovah to the broken in heart; The contrite in spirit he will save.

19             Many are the afflictions of the righteous; But from them all deliver him will Jehovah.

20             He keepeth all his bones: One of them is not broken.

21             That malice shall slay the wicked, And those who hate the righteous shall be destroyed.

22             Redeem doth, Jehovah the soul of his servants, And they shall not perish who confide in him.


Of David

1               Plead, O Jehovah! with those who plead with me, Fight against those who fight against me.

2               Lay hold on shield and buckler, And rise up to my aid.

3               Draw out the spear, and stop my ears against my persecutors: Say to my soul, “Thy salvation am I.”

4               Let those be confounded and put to shame Who seek my soul, Let those be turned back and be abashed Who devise my hurt.

5               Let them be as chaff before the wind? And let the angel of Jehovah drive them.

6               Let their way be darkness and slipperiness; And let the angel of Jehovah pursue them:

7               For without a cause they have hid for me the pitfall of their net, ff74 Without a cause they have digged a pit for my soul.

8               Let there come upon him confusion of which he is not aware; And let the net which he hath hidden catch him; With confusion let him fall into it.

9               And my soul hath exulted in Jehovah, It shall rejoice in his salvation.

10             All my bones shall say, “O Jehovah! who is like to thee, “Rescuing the poor from him who is too strong for him, “The poor and wretched from his spoiler?”

11             Rise up do witnesses [that are] violent; Things which I have not known they ask me.

12             They repay me evil for good, To the bereaving of my soul.

13             But as for me, in their sickness my clothing was sackcloth: I afflicted by fasting my soul; And my prayer upon my own bosom was turned.

14             As if he had been a friend, as if a brother to me, I behaved myself towards him: As he who mourneth heavily for his mother I humbled myself.

15             But they at my halting rejoiced, they were assembled together: Assembled together, I say, against me, were the abjects whom I had not known: They have torn with their lips and have not been silent.

16             Among perfidious jesters at feasts, They gnash upon me with their teeth.

17             O Lord! how long wilt thou behold it? Rescue my soul from their violence, From the lions my only one.

18             I will celebrate thee in the congregation great: Among people many I will praise thee.

19             Let not those rejoice over me, who unjustly are my enemies; Nor let those who hate me without a cause wink with the eye.

20             For peace they speak not;

21             They have opened against me their mouth; They have said, “Aha! aha! seen it hath our eye.”

22             Thou hast seen it also, O Jehovah: Be not silent, O Lord! be not far from me.

23             Arouse thyself, and awake for my judgment, My God! and my Lord! to my cause.

24             Judge me according to thy righteousness, O Jehovah, my God! And let them not rejoice over me.

25             Let them not say in their heart, “Aha! our soul!” Let them not say “We have destroyed him.”

26             Let those be ashamed and confounded together, Who rejoice at my calamity; Let those be clothed with shame and ignominy, Who magnify themselves against me.

27             But let those shout and rejoice, who favor my righteousness: And let them say continually, “Magnified be Jehovah! “Who loveth the peace of his servant.”

28             And my tongue shall speak of thy righteousness; All the day of thy praise.


To the Chief Musician. Of the servant of Jehovah, [even] of David

1               Ungodliness saith to the wicked man in the midst of my heart, There is no fear of God before his eyes.

2               For he flattereth himself in his own eyes, Until his iniquity be found to be hateful.

3               The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit, He teaseth to understand that he may do good.

4               Iniquity he meditates upon his bed; He setteth himself in a way not good; Evil he doth not abhor.

5               O Jehovah! unto the heavens is thy mercy, Thy truth even unto the clouds.

6               Thy justice is like the great mountains, Thy judgments are a great deep. Man and beast, thou preservest, O Jehovah!

7               How precious is thy loving-kindness, O God! Therefore the sons of men in the shadow of thy wings shall trust.

8               They shall be fully satisfied with the fatness of thy house; And of the river of thy pleasures thou shalt cause them to drink.

9               For with thee is the fountain of life, And in thy light shall we see light.

10             Extend thy mercy to those who know thee, And thy righteousness to the upright in heart.

11             Let not the foot of pride come upon me; And the hand of the ungodly let it not remove me.

12             There fallen are the workers of iniquity; They are thrust down and shall not be able to stand. ff75


Of David

1               Vex not thyself because of the wicked, Nor be envious on account of the workers of iniquity.

2               For like the grass quickly shall they be cut down; And as the green herb they shall wither.

3               Trust thou in Jehovah, and do good; Dwell in the land, and be fed in truth.

4               And delight in Jehovah, And he will grant thee the request of thy heart.

5               Devolve upon Jehovah thy ways, And trust in him, and he will bring it to pass.

6               And he will bring forth as the light thy righteousness, And thy judgments as the noonday.

7               Be silent to Jehovah, and wait for him; Vex not thyself at him who prospereth in his way, At the man who committeth wickedness.

8               Cease from anger, forsake wrath, Vex not thyself so as to commit sin.

9               For the wicked shall be cut off; But those who wait for Jehovah shall inherit the earth.

10             Yet a little while, and the ungodly shall not be; And thou shalt give attention to his place, and shalt not find him.

11             But the meek ones shall inherit the earth, And shall be delighted in the abundance of peace.

12             Plot doth the ungodly against the righteous, And gnasheth against him with his teeth.

13             The Lord shall laugh at him, For he seeth that coming is his day.

14             Their sword draw do the ungodly, And their bow they bend, To lay prostrate the poor and needy, To slay those who are upright in the way.

15             But their sword shall enter into their own heart, And their bow shall be broken.

16             Better is a little to the righteous man, Than the wealth of the ungodly who are great.

17             For the arms of the ungodly shall be broken; But Jehovah sustaineth the righteous.

18             Know doth Jehovah the days of the upright, And their inheritance for ever shall be.

19             They shall not be put to shame in the time of adversity; And in the days of famine they shall be satisfied.

20             For the ungodly shall perish, And the enemies of Jehovah like the fattest of lambs shall be consumed; Into smoke they shall be consumed.;

21             Borrow doth the ungodly man, and doth not repay; But the righteous man is compassionate and giveth.

22             For those who are blessed of him shall inherit the earth, And those who are cursed of him shall be cut off.

23             By Jehovah the steps of a man are directed, And his way he will love.

24             When he shall fall he shall not be bruised, For Jehovah putteth under [him] his hand.

25             Young I have been, I have also grown old; And yet I have not seen the righteous man forsaken, Nor his seed begging for bread.

26             Daily he is compassionate and lendeth, And his seed is for blessing.

27             Depart from evil and do good, And dwell for ever.

28             For Jehovah loveth judgment, And doth not forsake his meek ones; For ever shall they be preserved: And the seed of the ungodly shall be cut off.

29             The righteous shall inherit the earth, And shall dwell for ever upon it.

30             The mouth of the righteous shall speak wisdom;

31             The law of his God is in his heart; Slide not shall his steps.

32             Watch doth the ungodly the righteous man, And seeketh to put him to death.

33             Jehovah will not leave him in his hand, Nor condemn him when he is judged.

34             Wait for Jehovah, and keep his way, And he shall exalt thee to inherit the earth: When the ungodly shall be cut off thou shalt see it.

35             I have seen the ungodly man robust, ff76 And spreading himself like a green bay tree;

36             And he passed away, and to I he was not; And I sought for his place, and he was not found.

37             Mark the perfect man, and consider the upright; For the end of such a man is peace.

38             But transgressors shall be destroyed together: The end of the ungodly shall be cut off.

39             But the salvation of the righteous is from Jehovah: He will be their strength in the time of trouble.

40             And help them shall Jehovah, and deliver them: He shall deliver them from the wicked: He shall save them, because they trust in him.


A Psalm of David: to bring to remembrance

1               O Jehovah! do not in thy fury rebuke me, And in thy wrath do not chasten me.

2               For thy arrows go down in me, And descend upon me doth thy hand.

3               There is no soundness in my flesh, because of thy wrath, Nor peace in my bones because of my sin.

4               For my iniquities have passed over my head, Like a burden that is weighty, they are too heavy for me.

5               Putrid [and] corrupt have my wounds become, Because of my foolishness.

6               I am bowed down, I am brought low exceedingly; Day by day a mourner I do walk:

7               For my reins are filled with a burning heat; Nor is there soundness in my flesh.

8               I am enfeebled and broken exceedingly: I have roared through the disquietude of my heart.

9               O Lord! before thee is all my desire, And my groaning from thee is not hidden,

10             My heart hath throbbed, forsaken me hath my strength; And the light of my eyes, it also is gone from me.

11             My friends and my companions aloof from my stroke have stood, And my kinsmen afar off have stood.

12             And they have laid snares who sought for my soul; Arid those who sought my hurt have threatened mischiefs; And deceits daily do they meditate.

13             But as for me, like a deaf man I hear not; And I am like a dumb man who openeth not his mouth.

14             And I was as a man who doth not hear, And in whose mouth there are no reproofs.

15             For on thee, O Jehovah! do I wait: Thou wilt answer me, O Lord, my God!

16             For I said, “Lest they should rejoice over me: “ At the slipping of my foot against me they magnified themselves,

17             Surely as for me I am ready to halt; And my sorrow is before me continually.

18             Surely my iniquity I declare; I am in consternation because of my sin.

19             But my enemies are living; ff77 they are strong; And those are become mighty who hate me wrongfully.

20             And they who requite me evil for good are against me, Because I follow [what is] good.

21             Forsake me not, O Jehovah, my God! Be not far from me.

22             Hasten to my help, O Lord, my salvation!


To the Chief Musician, Jeduthun. A Psalm of David

1               I said “I will take heed to my ways, “That I sin not with my tongue: “I will keep my mouth with a muzzle, “While the ungodly man standeth before me.”

2               I was dumb not uttering a word; I held my peace [even] from good; And my sorrow was stirred.

3               My heart became hot within me; In my musing a fire did burn; I spake with my tongue.

4               Cause me to know, O Jehovah! my end, And the number of my days, That I may know of what duration I am.

5               Behold! as an handbreadth thou hast made my days, And my duration is as nothing before thee: Surely altogether vanity is every mart while he standeth.

6               Surely in a shadow man walketh; [Selah. Surely in vain is he disquieted: They heap together, and know not who shall gather.

7               And now what do I wait for, O Lord? My hope is towards thee.

8               From all my sins deliver thou me: The reproach of the foolish make me not.

9               I was dumb; I will not open my mouth, Because thou hast done it.

10             Remove from me thy stroke: By the blow of thy hand I have failed.

11             With rebukes for iniquity thou chastisest man; And causest to waste away as a moth his beauty: Surely vanity is every man. Selah.

12             Hear my prayer, O Jehovah! And to my cry give ear; At my tears be not silent; For a stranger am I before thee, A sojourner like all my fathers.

13             Let me alone, that I may recover strength, Before I depart and be no more.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               I have patiently waited for Jehovah, And he inclined to me, and heard my cry.

2               And he drew me out of the roaring pit, Out of the mire of clay, And set upon a rock my feet; He hath established my steps.

3               And he hath put in my mouth a song [that is] new, Even praise to our God: See shall many and shall fear, And shall trust in Jehovah.

4               Blessed is the man who maketh Jehovah his confidence, And hath not respected the proud, Nor those who turn aside to lying.

5               Many, O Jehovah, my God! are thy wonderful works which thou hast done; And thy thoughts towards us it is impossible to reckon up in order to thee: I will declare and speak [of them;] [But] they are more than can be told.

6               Sacrifice and oblation thou hast not taken pleasure in: But my ears hast thou made fit:  ff78 Burnt-offering and sin-offering thou hast not required.

7               Then I said, “Behold! I come; “In the volume of the book it is written of me,

8               “That I may do thy pleasure, O my God! “I have desired to do it, “And thy law is in the midst of my bowels.”

9               I have proclaimed thy righteousness in the assembly great: Behold my lips I will not restrain; O Jehovah! thou knowest it.

10             Thy righteousness I have not hidden within my heart; Thy truth and thy salvation I have declared: I have not concealed thy goodness and thy truth in the assembly great.

11             O thou, Jehovah! withhold not thy compassions from me; Let thy goodness and thy truth continually preserve me.

12             For encompassed me have evils innumerable; Laid hold upon me have my iniquities, yea in so great number that I cannot see them: They are more in number than the hairs of my head; And my heart hath failed me.

13             Let it please thee, O Jehovah! to deliver me; O Jehovah! to my aid make haste.

14             Let them be put to shame and confounded together Who seek after my soul to destroy it; Let them be turned backward and put to shame Who seek after my hurt.

15             Let them be destroyed for a reward of their shame, Who have said to me, “Aha! aha!”

16             Let all those exult and rejoice in thee who seek thee; And let those say continually, “May Jehovah be magnified” — “Those who love thy salvation.

17             But as for me I am poor and needy. Jehovah hath regarded me; My help and my deliverer art thou: O thou, my God! delay not.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               Blessed is he who judgeth wisely of the poor: In the day of evil Jehovah will deliver him.

2               Jehovah will keep him, and preserve him alive: He shall be blessed upon the earth: And thou will not give him up to the desire of his enemies.

3               Jehovah will support him upon the bed of sorrow: All his bed thou hast turned in his sickness.

4               I have said, “O Jehovah! have mercy upon me; “Heal my soul, for I have sinned against thee.”

5               My enemies have spoken evil of me, “When will he die, and perish shall his name? “

6               And if he come to see me falsely doth he speak; His heart gathereth iniquity to itself’: When he goeth abroad he speaketh [it.]

7               Together against me do all my haters whisper; Against me do they devise evil for me, [saying,]

8               “An evil deed of Belial cleaveth fast to him; “And he who lieth shall not rise again.”

9               Even the man of my peace in whom I trusted, Who eateth of my bread, hath lifted up against me the heel.

10             Do thou then, O Jehovah! have mercy upon me; Raise me up, and I will recompense them.

11             By this I have known that I have been acceptable to thee, Because my enemy shall not triumph over me.

12             And as for me, in my integrity thou wilt uphold me, And wilt establish me before thy face for ever.

13             Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Israel, For ever and ever. Amen and Amen.



To the Chief Musician. A lesson of instruction to the Sons of Korah

1               As the hart crieth for the fountains of waters, So my soul crieth for thee, O God!

2               Thirsted hath my soul for God, for the living God: When shall I come to appear before the face of God?

3               To me have my tears been for bread, by day and night, While it is said to me daily, “Where is thy God? “

4               When these things I remember, I pour out within me my soul, Because I had gone with the procession, Leading them even to the house of God, With the voice of exultation and praise, — The multitude dancing for joy.

5               ‘Why art thou cast down, O my soul! And why art thou disquieted within me? Wait thou for God; for I shall yet give him thanks, [For] the salvations of his countenance.

6               O my God! my soul within me is cast down, When I remember thee from the land of Jordan and of Hermonim, From the mountain Mizar.

7               Deep unto deep calleth at the noise of thy waterspouts: All thy waves and all thy billows over me have gone.

8               By day command will Jehovah his loving-kindness, And by night his song shall be with me, And prayer to the God of my life.

9               I will say to God, my Rock, “Why hast thou forgotten me? “Why mourning do I go because of the oppression of my enemy?”

10             [It is as] a wound in my bones when my enemies reproach me, Saying to me daily, “Where is thy God? “

11             ‘Why art thou cast down, O my soul? And why art thou disquieted within me? Hope in God; for I shall yet give thanks to him, The salvations of my countenance, and my God.


1               Judge me, O God! and plead my cause: From a people without mercy, from a man deceitful and wicked deliver me.

2               For thou art the God of my strength; Why art thou estranged from me? Why mourning do I go because of the oppression of the enemy?

3               Send forth thy light and thy truth; Let them direct me, let them conduct me, To the mountain of thy holiness, and to thy tabernacles.

4               And I will go to the altar of God, To the God of the joy of my rejoicing; And I will celebrate thee upon the harp, O God, my God!

5               Why art thou cast down, O my soul! And why art thou disquieted within me? Hope in God, for I shall yet celebrate him, Who is the salvation of my countenance and my God.


To the Chief Musician. Of the sons of Korah. Giving instruction

1               O God! with our ears we have heard, Our fathers have told us, The work which thou hast done in their days, In the days of old.

2               Thou with thy hand hast expelled the heathen, and planted them: Thou hast wasted the peoples and multiplied them:

3               For not by their own sword acquired they the land, And their own arm did not save them; But thy right hand and thy arm, and the light of thy countenance, Because thou wast favorable to them.

4               Thou, even thou, art my King; O God! command salvations for Jacob.

5               Through thee our adversaries with the horn we have pushed; In thy name we have trampled under foot those who rise up against us.

6               For not in my bow will I trust, And my sword will not save me.

7               Surely thou hast saved us from our enemies, And our haters thou hast put to shame.

8               In God we will boast all the day, And thy name for ever shall we praise. Selah.

9               Nevertheless thou hast abhorred us and put us to shame, And thou goest not forth any more with our armies.

10             Thou hast made us to turn back from him that afflicteth us, And our haters have spoiled us for themselves.

11             Thou hast given us as sheep for food; And among the heathen thou hast scattered us.

12             Thou hast sold thy people, and not become rich, And thou hast not increased the price of them.

13             Thou hast made us a reproach to our neighbors, A scorn and derision to those who are round about us.

14             Thou hast made us a byword among the heathen, A shaking of the head among the peoples.

15             Daily is my reproach before me, And the shame of my face hath quite covered me,

16             Because of the voice of him who reproacheth and revileth, Because of the face of the adversary and avenger.

17             All this is come upon us, and we have not forgotten thee, Nor dealt perfidiously in thy covenant;

18             Not turned back hath our heart, Nor declined have our steps from thy path.

19             Although thou hast crushed us in the place of dragons,  And covered us with the shadow of death.

20             If we have forgotten the name of our God, And have spread forth our hands to a God that is strange;

21             Shall not God search out this? For he knoweth the secrets of the heart.

22             Surely for thy sake we are killed daily; We are accounted as sheep [appointed] for slaughter.

23             Arise, why sleepest thou, O Lord? Awake, do not forget us for ever.

24             Wherefore thy face dost thou hide? Wilt thou forget our misery and our affliction?

25             For humbled to the dust is our soul; Cleave to the earth doth our belly.

26             Arise for our help, And redeem us for the sake of thy loving-kindness.


To the Chief Musician. Upon the lilies. Of the sons of Korah. Giving instruction. A Song of loves

1               Boiling over is my heart to speak a goodly theme, Speak shall I myself of my works concerning the King: My tongue is as the pen of a swift writer.

2               Thou art fair above the sons of men; Diffused is grace on thy lips; Because God hath blessed thee for ever.

3               Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O mighty one! With majesty and glory.

4               And in thy majesty prosper thou; Ride forth upon the word of truth, and meekness and righteousness; And thy right hand shall teach thee terrible things:

5               Thy arrows are sharp (so that the people fall under thee) In the hearts of the enemies of the king.

6               Thy throne, O God! is for ever and ever; The scepter of rectitude is the scepter of thy kingdom.

7               Thou lovest righteousness and hatest impiety; Because anointed thee hath God, thy God, With the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

8               Myrrh, and aloes and cassia [are] in all thy garments, Out of the ivory palaces, whence they have made thee glad.

9               The daughters of kings [were] among thy maids of honor; Stand did thy consort at thy right hand in gold of Ophir.

10             Hearken, O daughter! and consider and incline thy ear; And forget thy people, and the house of thy father.

11             And enamored shall be the King with thy beauty; For he is thy Lord, and thou shalt worship him.

12             And the daughter of Tyre [shall come] with a present; Thy favor entreat shall the rich among the people.

13             All glorious is the daughter of the King within; Of garments embroidered with gold is her clothing.

14             In raiment of needle-work she shall be brought to the King; Her virgins that follow her, her companions shall be brought to thee.

15             They shall be brought with joy and exultation; They shall enter into the palace of the King.

16             Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children; Thou shalt make them princes in all the earth.

17             I will make thy name to be remembered throughout all generation; Therefore celebrate thee shall the peoples for ever and ever.


To the Chief Musician. Of the sons of Korah. Upon Alamoth. A Song

1               God is to us a protection and strength; A help in troubles he is found exceedingly.

2               Therefore we will not fear when moved shall be the earth, And fall shall the mountains into the heart of the sea.

3               [When] roar and rage tempestuously shall the waters thereof; [When] shake shall the mountains with the swelling thereof. Selah.

4               The streams of her river shall make glad the city of God, The Sanctuary of the tabernacles of the Most High.

5               God is in the midst of her; she shall not be moved: Help her will God at the dawn of the morning.

6               Rage did the peoples, moved were the kingdoms: He uttered his voice, melt did the earth.

7               Jehovah of armies is with us; A fortress for us is the God of Jacob. Selah.

8               Come ye, consider the works of Jehovah, What desolations he hath wrought in the earth.

9               He maketh to cease battles, even to the ends of the earth; He breaketh the bow, he shattereth in pieces the arms; The chariot he burneth with fire.

10             Be still and know that I am God: I will be exalted among the heathen; I will be exalted in the earth.

11             Jehovah of armies is with us; A fortress for us is the God of Jacob. Selah.


To the Chief Musician. Of the sons of Korah. Upon Alamoth. A Song

1               O all ye peoples! clap the hand; Shout unto God with the voice of exultation;

2               For Jehovah is high, terrible, A great king over all the earth.

3               He hath put in order the people under us, And the nations under our feet.

4               He hath chosen for us our inheritance, The glory of Jacob, whom he hath loved. Selah.

5               Gone up is God with a shout, Jehovah with the sound of a trumpet.

6               Sing psalms to God, sing psalms; Sing psalms to our King, sing psalms;

7               For king of all the earth is God; Sing praises, all ye who understand!

8               The kingdom he hath obtained over the heathen; God sitteth upon the throne of his holiness.

9               The princes of the peoples are assembled together To the people of the God of Abraham: For to God belong the shields of the earth: He is greatly exalted.


A Song of a Psalm. Of the sons of Korah

1               Great is Jehovah and to be praised greatly In the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness.

2               Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, The mountain of Zion, on the sides of the north, The city of the great King.

3               God in her palaces is known for a defense.

4               For behold! the kings assembled, They passed away together.

5               They themselves saw, so they marveled; They were frightened, they fled precipitately,

6               Fear seized upon them there, Pain as of one in travail.

7               By the east wind thou breakest in pieces the ships of Tarshish.

8               As we have heard, so have we seen In the city of Jehovah of Hosts, In the city of our God: God will establish it for ever. Selah

9               We have waited, O God! for thy mercy In the midst of thy temple,

10             As is thy name, O God! So is thy praise unto the ends of the earth: Of righteousness full is thy right hand.

11             Rejoice shall Mount Zion, Exult shall the daughters of Judah, Because of thy judgments.

12             Encompass Zion, and walk round about her. Number the towers thereof,

13             Set your heart to her walls, Exalt her towers, That ye may make report to the generations to come.

14             For this God is our God for ever and ever: He will be our guide even unto death.


To the Chief Musician. Of the sons of Korah. A Psalm

1               Hear this all ye peoples; Give ear all ye inhabitants of the world:

2               Both ye sons of Adam, and ye sons of men, Rich and poor together.

3               My mouth shall speak of wisdoms, And the meditation of my heart is of understanding.

4               I will incline to a parable my ear: I will open upon the harp my enigma.

5               Wherefore should I fear in the days of evil? The iniquity of my heel shall compass me about.

6               They trust in their wealth, And in the multitude of their riches do glory.

7               The brother shall not be able to redeem; None shall give to God the price of his redemption.

8               And precious shall be the redemption of their soul, And their continuance for ever:

9               That he should still live for ever, And not see the grave.

10             For he shall see that wise men die, Together the fool and the brutish person shall perish, And leave to strangers their wealth.

11             Their inward thought is [how to make] their houses [to continue] for ever, Their dwelling-places from generation to generation: They have called out their names upon the earth.

12             And man in honor shall not abide; He hath become like the beasts: they perish.

13             This their way is foolishness in them, And their posterity in their saying will acquiesce. Selah.

14             Like sleep in the grave they are laid; Death shall feed them; And have dominion over them shall the upright in the morning, And their strength shall wax old; The grave shall receive them from their dwelling.

15             But God shall redeem my soul from the hand of the grave; For he hath taken me up. Selah.

16             Be not thou afraid when a man shall become rich, When increased shall be the glory of his house;

17             For he shall not at his death carry all away: Descend not after him shall his glory:

18             For his soul in his lifetime he will bless, And they shall praise thee when thou doest well to thyself.

19             He shall come to the age of his fathers, Even for ever he shall not see the light.

20             Man is in honor, and will not understand: He hath become like the beasts: they shall perish.


A Song, of Asaph

1               The God of gods, Jehovah hath spoken, And called the earth From the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof.

2               Out of Zion, the Perfection of beauty, God hath shined.

3               Come shall our God, and shall not keep silence; A fire before him shall devour, And round about him a tempest shall rage exceedingly.

4               He shall call to the heavens from above, And to the earth, to judge his people.

5               “Gather together to me my meek ones, (will he say),  “Those who strike a covenant with me over sacrifices.”

6               And declare shall the heavens his righteousness: For God is judge himself. Selah.

7               “Hear, O my people! and I will speak; “O Israel! and I will announce to thee:  “God, [even] thy God am I.

8               “Not for thy sacrifices will I reprove thee; “And thy burnt-offerings are before me continually.

9               “I will not take out of thy house a calf, “Nor out of thy folds he-goats:

10             “For mine are all the beasts of the forest, “The cattle upon a thousand hills.

11             “I know all the birds of the mountains; “And the wild beasts of the field are at my command.

12             “If I am hungry, I will not tell thee: “For mine is the world and the fullness thereof.

13             “Will I eat the flesh of bulls, “And the blood of goats will I drink?

14             “Sacrifice unto God praise, “And pay unto the Most High thy vows.

15             “Call upon me in the day of trouble; “I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.

16             “But unto the wicked said hath God, “What hast thou to do to declare my statutes, “[Or] that thou shouldest take my covenant into thy lips?

17             “Also thou hatest correction, “And castest my words behind thee.

18             “If thou seest a thief, thou wilt run with him, “And with adulterers is thy portion.

19             “Thy mouth thou puttest forth to evil, “And thy tongue frameth deceit,

20             “Thou wilt sit against thy brother; “Thou wilt speak against the sons of thy mother; “Thou wilt set forth slander.

21             “These things thou hast done, and I kept silence; “Thou thoughtest that I would be like thyself’: “I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes.

22             “Now consider this, ye who forget God, “Lest I seize upon you and there be none to deliver.

23             “He who sacrificeth praise will glorify me: “And he who ordereth his way to him will I show the salvation of God.”


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David, when Xathan the prophet came to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba

1               Have pity upon me, O God! according to thy mercy; According to the multitude of thy compassions blot out my iniquities.

2               Multiply to wash me from my sin, And from my wickedness do thou cleanse me.

3               For my sins I know, And my wickedness is before me continually.

4               Against thee, against thee only, have I sinned, And that which was displeasing in thy sight have I done; That thou mayest be justified when thou speakest, And be pure in giving judgment.

5               Behold in iniquity I was born, And in sin conceive me did my mother.

6               Behold, truth thou hast loved in the inmost parts, And in secret, wisdom thou hast made me know.

7               Thou shalt purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

8               Make me to hear joy and gladness; And exult shall the bones which thou hast broken.

9               Hide thy face from my sins, And all my iniquities blot out.

10             A heart [that is] clean create in me, O God! And a spirit [that is] right renew in my inward parts.

11             Cast me not away from thy face, And the Spirit of thy holiness take not from me.

12             Restore to me the joy of thy salvation, And with a free spirit uphold me.

13             I will teach transgressors thy ways, the ungodly to time shall be converted.

14             Deliver me from bloods, O God! O God of my salvation! And sing aloud shall my tongue of thy righteousness.

15             O Lord! my lips do thou open, And my mouth shall show forth thy praise.

16             For thou wilt not accept a sacrifice; Though I should give a burnt-offering, it would not please thee.

17             The sacrifices of God are an afflicted spirit: A heart afflicted and contrite, O God! thou wilt not despise.

18             Do good in thy good pleasure to Zion; Build thou the walls of Jerusalem.

19             Then shalt thou accept the sacrifices of righteousness, The burnt-offering and oblation; ff80 Then shall come upon thy altar calves.


To the Chief Musician. A lesson of instruction of David: when Doeg the Edomite came and told Saul, and said to him, that David had come into the house of Abimelech

1               Why dost thou glory in thy wickedness, O mighty man? The goodness of God continueth daily.

2               Thy tongue reckoneth up mischiefs, Like a razor [that is] sharp working deceitfully.

3               Thou lovest wickedness more than goodness; Falsehood more than to speak righteousness. Selah.

4               Thou lovest all words of deceit, O thou tongue of guilefulness!

5               Likewise God shall destroy thee for ever: He shall lay hold on thee and pluck thee out of thy tabernacle, And root thee out of the land of the living. Selah.

6               See it also shall the righteous ones, and shall fear, And at him they shall laugh.

7               Behold! the man who made not God his strength; And trusted in the abundance of his riches, And was strong in his wickedness.

8               But as for me I shall be like an olive-tree [that is] green in the house of God: I have trusted in the goodness of God for ever and ever.

9               I will celebrate thee for ever, because thou hast done [it:]  ff81 I will wait on thy name, For it is good in the presence of thy meek ones.


To the Chief Musician, upon Mahalath. A lesson of instruction ofDavid

1               The fool hath said in his heart, “There is not a God:” They have corrupted [all good order,] they have done abominable work: There is none who doeth good.

2               God from heaven looked down upon the sons of men, To see if there was any who did understand, Who did seek after God.

3               Every one of them hath gone back; They have all together become corrupt: There is none that doeth good, not even one.

4               Have they no knowledge, all these workers of iniquity? Eating my people [as] they eat bread: Upon Jehovah they have not called.

5               There were they afraid with fear, where there was not fear; For scattered hath Jehovah the bones of him that encampeth against thee: Thou hast put them to shame because God hath despised them.

6               Who shall give out of Zion deliverance to Israel? When bring back shall God the captivity of his people, Rejoice shall Jacob, exult shall Israel.


To the Chief Musician, on Neginoth. A lesson of instruction of David. When the Ziphims came and said to Saul, “Doth not David hide himself with us?”

1               O God! by thy name save me, And by thy strength judge me.

2               O God! hear my prayer, Give ear to the words of my mouth.

3               For strangers have risen up against me, And terrible ones have sought after my soul: They have not set God before them. Selah.

4               Behold! God is a helper to me; The Lord is with those who uphold my soul.

5               He shall repay evil to my adversaries: In thy truth cut them off.

6               Willingly will I sacrifice to thee; I will celebrate thy name, O Jehovah! for it is good.

7               For out of all trouble he hath delivered me; And [punishment] upon my adversaries mine eye hath seen.


To the Chief Musician on Neginoth. A lesson of instruction of David

1               Give ear, O God! to my prayer, And hide not thyself from my supplication.

2               Attend to me, and answer me: I will wail in my address, and will become tumultuous.

3               By reason of the voice of the enemy — Under the oppression of the ungodly; For they cast upon me iniquity, In wrath they set themselves against me.

4               My heart trembleth within me, And the terrors of death have fallen upon me.

5               Fear and trembling are come upon me, And horror hath overwhelmed me.

6               And I said, “Who will give me wings like a dove? “I will fly away and be at rest.

7               “Lo! I will flee far away, “I will repose in the desert. Selah.

8               “I will hasten my escape from the tempestuous whirlwind.”

9               Destroy, O Lord! divide their tongue: For I have seen oppression and strife in the city.

10             By day and night they go round it upon the walls thereof: And labor and sorrow are in the midst of it.

11             Wickedness  ff82 is in the midst of it; And fraud and deceit depart not from the streets thereof.

12             Truly it was not an enemy who reproached me, For [then] I could have borne [it:] It was not an adversary who magnified himself against me, For [then] I would have hid himself from him.

13             But thou, a man according to my own rank, My guide, and my familiar friend.

14             We sweetly exchanged our secret thoughts; Into the house of God we walked in company.

15             Let death seize upon them, Let them descend into the grave alive; For wickedness  ff83 is I, their dwelling, in the midst of them.

16             As for me, to God; will I cry, And Jehovah shall save me.

17             In the evening, and the morning, and at noonday Will I pray, and cry aloud; And he shall hear my voice.

18             He hath redeemed into peace my soul From the battle which was against me: For many were with me.

19             Hear shall God, and shall afflict them, Even he who sitteth from ancient time. Selah. Because they have no changes, And fear not God.

20             He hath set his hands against those who were at peace with him: He hath broken his covenant.

21             Smoother than butter are the words of his mouth, And in his heart is war; Softer are his words than oil, And [yet] they are darts.

22             Cast upon Jehovah whatever blessings thou askest from him, ff84 And he shall feed thee; He shall not suffer for ever the righteous man to stagger.

23             Thou, O God! shalt cast them into the pit of corruption: The men of blood and deceit shall not live out half their days: But as for me, I will hope in thee.


To the Chief Musician upon, the silent dove in distant places. Michtam of David, when the Philistines took him in Gath

1               Have mercy upon me, O God, For swallow me up doth man; He daily assaulting doth oppress me.

2               Swallow me up do my enemies daily: Truly many strive to oppress me, O Jehovah, Most High!

3               In the day when I was afraid, I in thee did trust.

4               In God I will praise his word; In God have I trusted; I will not fear what flesh can do to me.

5               Every day my words disquiet me; Against me are all their thoughts for evil.

6               They assemble together, they hide themselves, My heels they watch, Because they desire my soul.

7               In their iniquity they think there is escape for them: In thy wrath the peoples thou wilt cast down, O God!

8               My wanderings thou numbereth, even thou: Put my tears into thy bottle; Are they not in thy register?

9               Then my enemies shall be turned back in the day when I cry: This I know, because God is with me.

10             In God will I praise [his] word; In Jehovah will I praise [his] word.

11             In God have I trusted; I will not fear what man can do to me.

12             Upon me, O God! are thy vows, I will render praises to thee.

13             For thou hast delivered my soul from death: Hast thou not also delivered my feet from falling? That I may walk before God in the light of the living.


To the Chief Musician. Destroy not. Michtam of David. When he fled from the face of Saul in the cave

1               Have mercy upon me, O God! have mercy upon me; For in thee my soul doth trust; And in the shadow of thy wings will I hope, Until iniquity pass away.

2               I will cry to God Most High, Who perfecteth [his work] towards me.

3               He shall send from Heaven, And shall save me from the reproach of him who swalloweth me up: Send forth shall God his mercy and his truth.

4               My soul is in the midst of lions; I lie among those who are set on fire, — Among the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, And their tongue a sword [that is] sharp.

5               Be thou exalted above the heavens, O God! Above all the earth thy glory.

6               A net they have prepared for my steps: Bowed down is my soul: They have digged before me a pit, But they have fallen into it. Selah

7               Prepared is my heart, O God! prepared is my heart: I will sing, and chant psalms.

8               Awake my tongue, awake nablum  ff85 and harp: I will awake at dawn of day.

9               I will celebrate thee, among the peoples, O Lord! I will sing psalms to thee among the nation:

10             For great unto the heavens is thy goodness, And unto the clouds thy truth.

11             Be thou exalted, above the heavens, O God! Above all the earth thy glory.


To the Chief Musician. Destroy not. Michtam of David

1               Do ye indeed, O ye congregation! speak righteousness? Uprightly do ye judge? O ye sons of men!

2               Yea rather in your heart wickedness ye plot, On the earth violence your hands weigh out.

3               Estranged are the ungodly from the womb, They have gone astray from their birth speaking falsehood.

4               They have poison like the poison of a serpent, [They are] like the deaf adder which stoppeth her ear;

5               Which listeneth not to the voice of the enchanter, — Of him who exerciseth enchantment skillfully.

6               O God! break their teeth in their mouth: The jawbones of the lions break, O Jehovah!

7               Let them melt away like water, let them be gone: Let them bend their bow, and let their arrows be as if broken.

8               Like a snail which melteth away let them vanish; Like the untimely birth of a woman which doth not see the sun.

9               Before your pots can feel the fire of the bramble, Like flesh yet raw as a whirlwind he shall carry him away.

10             Rejoice shall the righteous when he seeth the vengeance; His hands he shall wash in the blood of the ungodly.

11             And men  ff86 shall say, “Truly there is fruit for the righteous, “Truly there is a God who judgeth in the earth.”


To the Chief Musician. Destroy not. Michtam of David. When Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him

1               Deliver me from my enemies, O my God! from those who rise up against me set me on high.

2               Deliver me from the workers of iniquity, And from men of bloods save me:

3               For lo! they have laid snares for my soul; Gathered together against me have the strong men; Not [for] my sin, nor [for] my wickedness, O Jehovah!

4               Without any iniquity of mine they have run and prepared themselves. Awake and come to meet me, and behold.

5               And thou, O Jehovah, God of armies! the God of Israel! Awake to visit all the nations; Do not have compassion upon any who transgress wickedly. Selah.

6               They will return at evening; They will make a noise like a dog, And go round about the city.

7               Behold they will prate with their mouth; Swords are in their lips; “For who,” say they, “will hear?”

8               But thou, O Jehovah! shalt laugh at them; Thou shalt hold in derision all the nations.

9               His strength with thee I will put in trust; For God is my fortress.

10             The God of my mercy shall prevent me; God will make me see my desire upon my enemies.

11             Slay them not, lest my people should forget; Make them to wander by thy power; And bring them down, O Lord, our shield!

12             The sin of their mouth, the words of their lips: Let them be taken in their pride: of cursing and lying let them speak.

13             Consume, in thy fury consume them, that they may be no more; And let men know that God ruleth in Jacob, Even to the ends of the earth. Selah. ff87

14             And they will return at evening; They will bark like a dog, And go round about the city.

15             They will wander up and down for food; If they be not satisfied they will even stay all night.

16             But as for me, I will sing of thy strength, I will praise in the morning thy mercy; For thou hast been a fortress to me, And a refuge in the day of my trouble.

17             My strength is with thee, I will sing psalms; For God is my fortress, the God of my mercy.


To the Chief Musician upon Shushan Eduth. Michtam of David to teach. When he fought against the Syrians of Mesopotamia and against the Syrians of Zobah; and when Joab, having returned, smote of the Edomites in the Valley of Salt twelve thousand

1               O God! thou hast cast us off, thou hast scattered us; Thou hast been angry, O return to us!

2               To tremble thou hast made the earth; Thou hast caused it to open wide; Heal the breaches thereof for it shaketh.

3               Thou hast showed to thy people a hard thing, Thou hast made us drunk with the wine of stupefaction.

4               Thou hast given to those who fear thee a banner, That it may be displayed before thy truth. Selah.

5               That thy beloved ones may be delivered, Save with thy right hand and hear me.

6               God hath spoken in his holiness; I will rejoice: I will divide Shechem, And the valley of Succoth I will measure.

7               Mine shall be Gilead, and mine shall be Manasseh; And Ephraim shall be the strength of my head; Judah, my lawgiver.

8               Moab shall be the pot for my washing; Over Edom will I cast my shoe; O Palestina! triumph thou over me.

9               Who will bring me into the city fortified? Who will lead me into Edom?

10             Wilt not thou, O God! who hadst cast us off?  [thou] O God! [who] didst not go forth with our armies?

11             Grant us relief from trouble, For vain is the help of man.

12             Through God we shall do valiantly: And he it is who shall tread down our adversaries.


To the Chief Musician upon Neginoth. A Psalm of David

1               Hear, O God! my cry, Attend to my prayer.

2               From the end of the earth to thee will I cry, when vexed is my heart: To the rock which is higher than I thou shalt lead me.

3               For thou hast been a hope to me, A tower of strength from the face of the enemy.

4               I will dwell in thy tabernacle for ever; I will be safe under the covert of thy wings. Selah.

5               For thou, O God! hast heard my vows: Thou hast given an inheritance to those who fear thy name.

6               Days upon days to the king thou shalt add, His years shall be as many generations.

7               He shall dwell for ever in the presence of God: Mercy and truth do thou prepare: thou shalt preserve him.

8               So will I sing unto thy name for ever, That I may perform my vows every day.


To the Chief Musician upon Jeduthun. A Psalm of David

1               Nevertheless towards God silent is my soul: From him is my salvation.

2               Nevertheless he is my reek and my salvation, My fortress: therefore I shall not be moved greatly.

3               How long will ye continue to lay snares against a man? Ye shall be slain all of you: As an inclining wall shall ye be, and a fence that is shaken.

4               Yet from his elevation they consult to east him down:  They delight in falsehood: With their mouth they bless, And in their hearts they curse. Selah. Nevertheless towards God be thou silent O my soul: For from him is my expectation.

6               Nevertheless he only is my rock, and my salvation: My fortress; I shall not fall.

7               In God is my salvation and my glory; The rock of my strength; my hope is in God.

8               Hope in him at all times, O ye people! Pour out before his face your hearts: God is our hope. Selah.

9               Nevertheless vanity are the sons of Adam; A lie the sons of men: When put all together in a balance they are found lighter than vanity itself. ff88

10             Trust not in oppression and robbery; be not vain: [Upon] riches if they abound set not your heart.

11             Once God hath spoken; Twice this I have heard, “That power belongeth to God; “ And to thee, O Lord! belongeth mercy; Truly thou wilt render to every man according to his work.


A Psalm of David, when he was in the wilderness of Judea

1               O God! my God art thou; Early will I seek thee: Thirsted for thee hath my soul, Longed for thee hath my flesh, In this land [that is] inhospitable and dry, without water.

2               Thus in the sanctuary have I beheld thee, To see thy power and thy glory.

3               Because better is thy mercy than life, My lips shall praise thee.

4               Thus will I bless thee in my life; In thy name I will lift up my hands.

5               As with marrow and farness satisfied shall be my soul, And with lips of rejoicing shall my mouth praise thee.

6               Surely I will remember thee upon my bed; In the watches of the night I will meditate upon thee;

7               Because thou hast been a help to me: And in the shadow of thy wings I will shout for joy.

8               Cleaved hath my soul to [literally after] thee; Sustain me shall thy right hand.

9               And they whilst they seek to destroy my soul, Shall go into the lowest parts of the earth.

10             They shall east him down to the edge of the sword: The portion of foxes they shall be.

11             But the king shall rejoice in God, And glory shall every one who sweareth by him: For stopped shall be the mouth of those who speak falsehood.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               Hear, O God! my voice in my prayer: From fear of the enemy preserve my life.

2               Hide me from the counsel of malignant men — From the assembly of tire workers of iniquity.

3               For they have sharpened as a sword their tongue; They have directed for their arrow a bitter word.

4               To shoot in secret at the innocent man: Suddenly they will shoot and not fear.

5               They encourage themselves in an impious action; They talk together of secretly laying snares; They say, “Who shall see them?”

6               They have searched out iniquities, They have accomplished a searching search: And the inward part of each of them and the heart [is] deep.

7               But God shall shoot at them an arrow; Suddenly shall they be wounded.

8               And they shall make their own tongue fall upon themselves, And flee away shall all who see them.

9               And see shall all men, and shall declare the work of God, And his doing they shall understand.

10             Rejoice shall the righteous in Jehovah, and they shall hope in him; And glory shall all the upright in heart.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David. A Song

1               For thee waiteth praise, O God! in Zion; And to thee performed shall be the vow.

2               O thou who hearest prayer! To thee shall all flesh come.

3               Words of iniquity  ff89 have prevailed against me: Our crimes thou shalt expiate.

4               Blessed is he whom thou wilt choose, and cause to approach to thee; He shall dwell in thy courts: We shall be satisfied with the goodness of thy house — Of the sanctuary of thy palace.

5               Terrible things in righteousness wilt thou answer us, O God of our salvation! The hope of all the ends of the earth, And of the far off places of the sea.

6               Establishing the mountains by his power,  ff90 Being girded with might.

7               Stilling the noise of the seas, And the noise of their waves, the tumults of the nations.

8               And afraid shall be the dwellers in the ends of the earth at thy signs; The outgoings of the morning and evening thou shalt make to shout for joy.

9               Thou hast visited the earth, and watered her; Thou hast abundantly enriched her: The river of God is full of waters: Thou wilt prepare their corn, For so thou hast prepared her.

10             Her furrows thou dost saturate, Thou makest the rain to fall into her ridges, With showers thou dost moisten her, Her buddings thou dost bless.

11             Thou crownest the year with thy beneficence, And thy paths will drop fatness.

12             They drop upon the dwellings of the wilderness; And with gladness the hills shall be girded.

13             Clothed are the pastures with flocks; And the valleys are covered with corn; They shout for joy, they also sing.


To the Chief Justice,. A Song of a Psalm

1               Shout joyfully to God all the earth,

2               Sing the glory of his name, Make glorious his praise.

3               Say unto God: “How terrible art thou in thy works! “Through the greatness of thy power shall thy enemies feign submission unto thee.

4               “All the earth shall worship thee, and shall sing to thee, “They shall hymn thy name.” Selah.

5               Come ye, and see the works of God: He is terrible in his doing towards the sons of men.

6               He turned the sea into dry land; Through the river  ff91 they passed on foot; There we were glad in him.

7               He ruleth by his might over the world;  ff92 His eyes upon the nations are fixed: The rebels shall not exalt themselves. Selah.

8               Bless, O ye people! our God, And resound the voice of his praise.

9               Who hath brought our souls into life, And hath not suffered our feet to fall.

10             For thou hast proved us, O God! Thou hast tried us as silver is tried:

11             Thou hast brought us into the net Thou hast laid restraint upon our loins;

12             Thou hast made man to ride over our heads; We have come into fire and water; And thou hast brought us into a place of abundance.

13             I will come into thy house with burnt-offerings; I will pay thee my vows,

14             Which my lips have uttered, And my mouth hath spoken in my affliction.

15             Burnt-offerings of fat lambs I will offer to thee with incense of rams; I will bring bullocks with goats. Selah.

16             Come, hear, and I will tell all you who fear God, What he hath done for my soul.

17             To him with my mouth I cried, And I have exalted him with my tongue.

18             If I have regarded iniquity in my heart, The Lord will not hear me.

19             But truly heard me hath God; He hath attended to the voice of my prayer.

20             Blessed be God who hath not turned away my prayer, Nor his mercy from me.


To the Chief Musician on Neginoth. A Psalm [or] Song

1               May God have compassion upon us, and bless us; May he cause his countenance to shine upon us. Selah.

2               That thy way may be known upon the earth, Among all nations thy salvation.

3               Let the peoples praise thee, O God! Let all the peoples celebrate thee.

4               Let the peoples rejoice and exult, For he shall judge the peoples with rectitude, And the nations upon earth thou shalt guide. Selah.

5               Let the peoples celebrate thee, O God! Let all the peoples celebrate thee:

6               The earth hath given her increase; God [even] our own God will bless us.

7               God will bless us; And fear him shall all the ends of the earth.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm [or] Song of David

1               Arise shall God: scattered shall be his enemies; And flee from before his face shall those who hate him.

2               As smoke is driven away thou shalt drive them away; As wax melteth before the fire, perish shall the ungodly from before the face of God.

3               But the righteous shall rejoice, They shell exult before God, And leap for joy.

4               Sing ye unto God, sing psalms to his name; Exalt him who rideth upon the clouds whose name is Jah, And exult before him.

5               The father of the orphans, and the judge of the widows, Is God in the habitation of his holiness.

6               God who causeth the solitary to dwell in a family, Who bringeth forth those who are bound with chains: But rebels shall dwell in a dry land.

7               O God! when thou well test forth before thy people, When thou marchedst through the wilderness; Selah:

8               The earth was moved, Also the heavens dropped at the presence of this God: Sinai at the presence of God, the God of Israel.

9               A liberal rain thou shalt make to fall, O God! upon thy inheritance, And when it is weary thou refreshest it.

10             Thy congregation shall dwell therein: Thou wilt provide in thy goodness for the poor, O God!

11             The Lord shall give the word To the women who announce the great army.

12             Kings of armies shall flee — shall flee; And she who dwelleth within the house shall divide the spoils.

13             Though ye should lie among the pots, in the ashes, Yet shall ye be as the wings of the dove covered with silver, And which behind is as fine yellow gold.

14             When the Almighty scattered kings in it, It was white in Salmon.

15             The mountain of God, the mountain of Bashan, The mountain of heights, the mountain of Bashan.

16             Why leap ye, ye mountains of heights? The mountain in which it hath pleased God to dwell: Yea dwell in it will Jehovah for ever.

17             The chariots of God [are] twenty thousand thousands of angels: The Lord is among them, In the sanctuary as in Sinai.

18             Thou hast ascended on high; Thou hast led captive captivity; Thou hast received gifts among men; Yea even [among] rebels, That Jehovah God might dwell in the midst of his people.

19             Blessed be God day by day: This God will load us with deliverances. Selah.

20             Our God is the God of salvations; And to Jehovah Lord belong the issues of death.

21             Surely God shall wound the head of his enemies, The crown of the hair of him who walketh in his wickedness.

22             The Lord hath said: “From Bashan I will bring back; “I will bring back from the depths of the sea:

23             “That thy foot may be stained with blood, “The tongue of thy dogs even in that of thy enemies.”

24             They have seen thy goings, O God!— The goings of my God, my King, in the sanctuary.

25             Before went the singers; [Then] followed the players on instruments; In the midst [were] the damsels striking the timbrels.

26             In the congregations bless ye God, [Even] the Lord, ye who are of the fountain of Israel!

27             There was little Benjamin their ruler, The princes of Judah in their assembly, The princes of Zebulun, the princes of Naphthali.

28             Commanded hath thy God thy strength; Strengthen, O God! what thou hast wrought in us.

29             From thy temple upon Jerusalem To thee shall kings bring presents.

30             Destroy the company of spearmen, The assembly of bulls, with the calves of the peoples, Treading with their feet upon pieces of silver: Scatter thou the peoples that in wars delight.

31             Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall speedily stretch forth her hands to God.

32             O ye kingdoms of the earth! sing unto God: Sing psalms to the Lord. Selah.

33             To him who rideth upon the heavens of heavens which are of old: Lo! he shall send forth in his voice a voice of strength,

34             Ascribe ye strength to God over Israel; His majesty and his strength [are] in the clouds.

35             Terrible art thou, O God! out of thy holy places: The God of Israel himself shall give strength and might to his people. Blessed be God!


To the Chief Musician upon Shoshannim. Of David

1               Save me, O God! For entered have the waters even to my soul.

2               I am sunk into deep mire where there is no standing place; I am come into the depths of waters, And the floods of water have overflowed me.

3               I am weary with crying, Hoarse is my throat become therewith; Failed have my eyes with waiting for my God.

4               More in number than the hairs of my head are those who hate me without cause: Increased are those who desire to destroy me, [even] my lying adversaries: That which I took not by violence, then I restored it.

5               O God! thou knowest my foolishness, And my faults from thee are not hidden.

6               Let not those be ashamed in me that wait for thee, O Lord, Jehovah of armies! Let not those be put to shame in me who seek thee, O God of Israel!

7               For on thy account I have suffered reproach; Shame hath covered my face.

8               A stranger I have been to my brethren, And an alien I am become to the children of my mother.

9               For the zeal of thy house hath eaten me up; And the reproaches of those who reproached thee have fallen upon me.

10             And I wept, my soul fasted; And that was for a reproach to me.

11             And I made my garment sackcloth; And I was to them for a jest.

12             Defame me do those who sit in the gate; And I am the songs of those who drink intoxicating liquor.

13             But as for me my prayer [is] to thee, O Jehovah! In the time of thy favor, O God! In the multitude of thy mercy answer me, In the truth of thy salvation.

14             Rescue me from the mire that I may not sink; That I may be delivered from my adversaries, And from the depths of waters.

15             Let not the flood of waters overflow me; And let not the deep swallow me up; And let not the pit dose its mouth upon me.

16             Answer me, O Jehovah! for good is thy mercy: In the multitude of thy compassions look upon me.

17             And hide not thy face from thy servant, for I am afflicted: Hasten! answer me!

18             Draw near to my soul, redeem it: On account of my adversaries deliver me.

19             Thou knowest my reproach, and my confusion, and my ignominy: Before thee are all my adversaries.

20             Reproach hath broken my heart, and I am afflicted; And I looked for some one to show compassion, but there was none; For comforters, but I found them not.

21             And they put into my meat gall, And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.

22             Let their table be before them for a snare; And their prosperity for a net;

23             Darkened let be their eyes, that they may not see; And cause their loins continually to tremble.

24             Pour out upon them thy wrath; And let the fury of thy indignation take hold of them.

25             Let their palace be desolate; In their tents let there not be a dweller.

26             For him whom thou hast smitten they have persecuted; And to the grief of those whom thou hast wounded they have added.

27             Add iniquity to their iniquity; And let them not enter into thy righteousness.

28             Let them be blotted out of the book of the living; And with the righteous let them not be written.

29             But as for me I am poor and sorrowful: Thy salvation shall exalt me.

30             I will praise the name of God in a song, And I will magnify him with thanksgiving.

31             And this will please Jehovah More than a young bullock that hath horns and hoofs.

32             Seen it have the afflicted, And they shall rejoice at it who seek God; And live shall your heart.

33             For hearkened hath Jehovah to the afflicted; And his prisoners he hath not despised.

34             Praise him let heaven and earth; The seas and whatever creepeth in them.

35             For God will save Zion, And will build the cities of Judah; And they shall dwell there, And possess it by inheritance.

36             And the seed of his servants shall inherit it; And they who love his name shall dwell in it.


To the Chief Musician. Of David. To call to remembrance

1               O God! to deliver me, O Jehovah! to my aid, hasten.

2               Let those be ashamed and confounded who seek after my soul; Let those be turned backward and put to confusion who desire my hurt.

3               Let those be destroyed for a reward of their shame, Who say to me, “Aha! Aha!”

4               Exult and rejoice in thee let all who seek thee; And let those say, “For ever may God be magnified” — Those who love thy salvation.

5               But as for me I am poor and needy: O God! hasten to me: My help and my deliverer art thou: O Jehovah! delay not.


1               In thee, O Jehovah! do I put my trust, Let me not be put to shame for ever.

2               In thy righteousness deliver me, and rescue me; Incline to me thy ear, and save me.

3               Be thou to me for a rock of strength, Into which I may enter at all times: Thou hast given commandment to save me; For my tower and my fortress art thou.

4               O my God! deliver me from the hand of the ungodly man, — From the hand of the wicked and violent men.

5               For thou art my expectation, O Lord Jehovah! My trust from my youth.

6               Upon thee have I been sustained from the womb; Out of my mother’s bowels thou art he who took me: Of thee is my praise continually.

7               As a prodigy I have been to the great ones, And yet thou art my strong confidence.

8               Filled shall be my mouth with thy praise, Daily with thy glory.

9               Cast me not off in the time of my old age: In the declining of my strength forsake me not.

10             For my enemies have spoken concerning me, And those who watch for my soul have consulted together,

11             Saying, “God hath forsaken him; “Follow after him, and ye shall take him; “For there is none to deliver him.”

12             O God! be not far from me: O my God! to my aid hasten.

13             Let those be put to shame, let those fail who are the adversaries of my soul: Let those be covered with reproach mid shame who seek my hurt.

14             But as for me continually will I hope, And will add to all thy praise.

15             My mouth shall tell of thy righteousness, Daily of thy salvation; For I know not the number thereof.

16             I will go in the strength of the Lord Jehovah! I will remember thy righteousness alone.

17             O God! thou hast taught me from my youth; And unto this time will I announce thy wonders.

18             And therefore  ff93 in old age and gray hairs, O God! forsake me not, Until I have declared thy strength to the generation, To all who are to come thy might.

19             And thy righteousness, O God! is very high: For thou hast done great things: O God! who is like to thee?

20             Thou hast made me to see troubles many and grievous, But being turned thou wilt quicken me, And from the depths of the earth, being turned thou wilt raise me up.

21             Thou wilt multiply my greatness; And being turned thou wilt comfort me.

22             Moreover, I, even I, will sing to thee on instruments of music;  ff94 For thy truth, O my God! I will sing psalms to thee upon the harp, O Holy One of Israel!

23             Exult shall my lips, when I sing psalms to thee; And my soul which thou hast redeemed.

24             Also my tongue daily shall declare thy righteousness; For they are put to shame, for they are disgraced, who seek my hurt.


Of Solomon

1               O God! thy judgments give to the King, And thy righteousness to the son of the King

2               He shall judge thy people in righteousness, And thy poor ones in judgment.

3               Bring forth shall the mountains peace to the people, And the hills in righteousness.

4               He shall judge the poor ones of the people; He shall save the children of the afflicted; And shall break in pieces the calumniator.

5               They shall fear thee with the sun; And before the moon the generation of generations shall fear thee.

6               He shall descend as rain upon the mown grass; As the showers which water the earth.

7               Flourish in his days shall the righteous; And abundance of peace until there be no more moon.

8               And he shall have dominion from sea to sea, And from the river even to the ends of the earth.

9               Before him shall bow the inhabitants of the desert, And his enemies shall lick the dust.

10             The kings of Tarshish and of the isles a present shall bring: The kings of Sheba and Seba a gift shall offer to him.

11             And all kings shall prostrate themselves before him; All nations shall serve him.

12             For he shall deliver the poor who crieth to him, And the needy who hath no helper.

13             He will have compassion upon the indigent and the poor one, And the souls of the poor ones he will save.

14             From fraud and violence he will redeem their souls, And precious shall be their blood in his eyes.

15             And he shall live, and there shall be given to him of the gold of Sheba, And prayer shall be made for him continually; Daily shall he be blessed.

16             There shall be sown an handful of corn in the earth on the top of the mountains; The fruit thereof shall be shaken like [that] of Lebanon. And they shall go forth from the city as a plant of the earth.

17             His name shall be for ever; In presence of the sun propagated shall be his name: And bless themselves in him shall all nations, And blessed they shall call him.

18             Blessed be Jehovah God! the God of Israel! ff95 Who doeth wonderful things alone.

19             And blessed be his glorious name for ever; And let all the earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen.

20             Finished are the prayers of David, the son of Jesse.



A Psalm of Asaph

1               Yet God is good to Israel, To those who are right in heart.

2               As for me, wellnigh slipped had my feet, My steps were almost gone:

3               For I was envious at the foolish, On seeing the prosperity of the ungodly.

4               For there are no bands to their death, And vigorous is their strength.

5               In the [common] trouble of man they are not; And with other men they are not scourged.

6               Therefore encompass them as a chain doth pride; Covered them hath the raiment of violence.

7               Their eye projecteth through fatness; They have passed beyond the thoughts of their heart.

8               They break forth, and talk wickedly of extortion: From on high do they speak.

9               They have set against the heaven their mouth, And their tongue walketh through the earth.

10             On this account his people will return hither, And waters of a full cup will be wrung out to them.

11             And they say, “How doth God know? “And is there knowledge in the Most High? “

12             Behold these are the ungodly, and [yet]. they are in quiet for ever: They heap up riches.

13             Surely in vain I have purified my heart, And washed every day my hands:

14             And I have been scourged every day, And my chastisement [has been] every morning.

15             If I have said, “I will speak thus,” Behold! the generation of thy children: I have transgressed.

16             And although I applied my mind to know this, A pain fill thing it was in mine eyes,

17             Until I entered into the sanctuaries of God, And understood their end.

18             Surely in slippery places thou hast set them; Thou shalt east them down into destructions.

19             How have they been destroyed as in a moment! They have perished, they have been consumed with terrors.

20             As it were a dream after a man is awakened; O Lord! in awaking, their image thou wilt render contemptible.

21             For in a ferment was my heart, And in my reins I was pierced.

22             And I myself [was] foolish and knew not any thing; As the beasts have I been before thee.

23             Nevertheless I have been continually with thee; Thou hast held my right hand.

24             With thy counsel thou shalt guide me; And at length to glory thou shalt take me.

25             Whom have I in heaven but thee? And another with time I have not desired on the earth.

26             Failed have my flesh and my heart; But the strength of my heart and my portion is God for ever.

27             For lo! those who depart from thee shall perish: Thou hast destroyed every one who goeth a whoring from thee.

28             As for me, to draw near to God is good for me: I have put in the Lord Jehovah my trust, That I may tell of all thy works.


An Instruction of Asaph

1               Wherefore, O God! hast thou cast us off for ever? [Why] smoketh thy wrath against the flock of thy pastures?

2               Remember thy congregation which thou hast possessed of old;  ff97 Which thou hast redeemed, the rod of thy inheritance, This Mount Zion in which thou hast dwelt.

3               Lift up thy strokes to desolations perpetual, Against every enemy who doeth mischief to the sanctuary.

4               Roared like lions have thy adversaries in the midst of thy sanctuaries; They have set up their signs for signs.

5               He was renowned as doing an excellent work Who lifted up the axes upon the thick trees. ff98

6               And now the carved works thereof together, With the hatchet and with hammers they break in pieces.

7               They have set on fire thy sanctuaries; Leveling it with the ground, they have polluted the dwelling-place of thy name.

8               They have said in their heart, “Let us destroy them altogether.” They have burned all the tabernacles of God in the land.

9               Our signs we see not; There is no longer a prophet, Nor is there with us one who knoweth how long! —

10             How long, O God! shall the adversary reproach? Shall the enemy blaspheme thy name for ever?

11             How long wilt thou withdraw thy hand, and thy right hand? In the midst, of thy bosom consume them.

12             But God is my king from the beginning, Working salvations in the midst of the earth.

13             Thou didst divide  ff99 by thy power the sea; Thou didst break the heads of dragons in the waters.

14             Thou didst break the head of the leviathan; Thou gavest him for food to thy people in the wilderness.

15             Thou didst cleave the fountain and the torrent: Thou didst dry up mighty rivers.

16             Thine is the day; thine also is the night: Thou hast ordained the light and the sun.

17             Thou hast fixed all the boundaries of the earth: The summer and the winter thou hast made.

18             Remember this: the enemy hath reproached Jehovah; And a worthless people hath done despite to thy name.

19             Give not to the beast the soul of thy turtle dove: The congregation of thy poor ones forget not for ever.

20             Have regard to thy covenant; For filled are the dark places of the earth with the abodes of violence.

21             Let not the afflicted one return ashamed; Let the poor and needy one praise thy name.

22             Arise, O God! plead thy own cause: Remember thy reproach, which is done thee by the foolish man daily.

23             Forget not the voice of thy adversaries: The tumult of those who rise up against thee ascendeth continually.


To the Chief Musician. Destroy not. A Psalm of Asaph. A song

1               We will celebrate thee, O God! we will celebrate thee; And near is thy name: they will declare thy wonders.

2               When I shall have taken the congregation, I in uprightness will judge.

3               Dissolved is the earth, and all the inhabitants thereof: will establish the pillars of it. Selah.

4               I said to the fools, “Act not foolishly; “ And to the ungodly, “Raise not up the horn.”

5               Raise not up on high your horn; And speak not with a stiff neck. g. For neither from the east, nor from the west, Nor from the wilderness are exaltations.

7               For God is judge: tie bringeth low, and he setteth up.

8               For a cup is in the hand of Jehovah, and the wine is turbid; It is full of mixture, and he shall pour forth of it. Surely the dregs thereof they shall wring out;. And drink of it shall all the wicked of the earth.

9               But as for me I will publish for ever, I will sing psalms to the God of Jacob.

10             And all the horns of the ungodly I will break; But exalted shall be the horns of the righteous.


To the Chief Musician on Neginoth. A Psalm of Asaph. A Song

1               Known in Judah is God; In Israel great is his name.

2               And in Salem was his tabernacle, And his dwelling-place in Zion.

3               There he broke the arrows of the bow, The shield, and the sword, and the battle. Selah.

4               More glorious, more terrible art thou Than the mountains of prey.

5               Spoiled were the stout in heart, They slept their sleep: And none of the men of might have found their hands.

6               At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob! Cast into a deep sleep were the chariot and the horse.

7               Thou art terrible [even] thou; And who shall stand before thy face when thou art angry?

8               From the heavens thou hast made judgment to be heard: The earth was afraid and was still,

9               When God arose to judgment, To save all the meek of the earth. Selah.

10             Surely the wrath of men shall praise thee, The remainder of wrath thou wilt restrain.

11             Vow and pay to Jehovah your God: Let all who are round about him bring a present to the terrible one.

12             He will cut off the spirit of princes: He is terrible to the kings of the earth.


To the Chief Musician upon Jeduthun. A Psalm of Asaph

1               My voice [I lifted up] to God, and I cried; My voice [I lifted up] to God, and he heard me.

2               In the day of my affliction the Lord I sought: My hand in the night was stretched out and relaxed not; Refuse consolation did my soul.

3               I will remember God, and will be disquieted; I will meditate, and oppressed with sorrow shall be my spirit. Selah.

4               Thou hast held the watches of my eyes: I am troubled, and will not speak.

5               I have recounted the days of old, The years of ages past.

6               I will call to remembrance my song in the night: With my heart I will meditate, And search diligently shall my spirit.

7               For ever will the Lord east off? And will he be favorable no more?

8               Gone for ever is his mercy? Fail doth his oracle from generation to generation?

9               Forgotten to be merciful hath God? Hath he shut up in anger his compassions? Selah.

10             And I said my disease [is only for a season;] The years of the right hand of the Most High [I will wait for.]

11             I will remember the works of God; Surely I will remember thy wonders from the beginning.

12             And I will meditate on all thy works, And on thy doings I will muse.

13             O God! in the sanctuary are thy ways: What god is so great as God?

14             Thou art the God who doest wonders; Thou hast made known among the peoples thy strength.

15             Thou hast redeemed by [thy] arm thy people, The sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah.

16             See thee did the waters, O God! see thee did the waters; They were afraid; also tremble did the deeps.

17             The clouds poured out waters; The heavens gave forth a voice: Also thine arrows went abroad.

18             The voice of thy thunder was in the circuit, The lightnings illumined the world; The earth trembled and was shaken.

19             In the sea are thy ways, And thy paths in the great waters; And thy footsteps are not known.

20             Thou leadest like sheep thy people By the hand of Moses and Aaron.


A lesson of Instruction [of] Asaph

1               Give ear, O my people! to my law: Incline your ears to the words of my month.

2               I will open in a parable my mouth; I will utter enigmas from ancient Sae.

3               What we have heard and known, And our’ fathers have related to us,

4               We will not conceal from their children to the generation to come, Recounting the praises of Jehovah and his might, And the wonders which he hath done.

5               And he established a testimony in, Jacob, And a law he appointed in Israel; For lie commanded our fathers To make them known to their children;

6               That the generations to come might know them, That the children to be born might arise, And declare them to their children.

7               That they might set in God their hope, And not forget the works of God; But that his commandments they might observe,

8               And not be as their fathers, A generation rebellious and provoking; A generation which set not their heart might, And whose spirit was not faithful towards God.

9               The children of Ephraim, armed [and] shooting with the bow, Were turned back in the day of battle.

10             They kept not the covenant of God, And in his law they refused to walk.

11             And they forget his works, And the wonders which he had shown them.

12             In the sight of their fathers he wrought marvelously; In the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan.

13             He divided the sea, and caused them to pass through, And made the waters to stand as an heap.

14             And he led them by a cloud in the day; And all the night by the light of fire.

15             He clave the rocks in the wilderness, And made them to drink in great deeps.

16             And he brought forth streams from the rock, And made the waters to descend like rivers.

17             Yet they continued still to sin against him, To provoke the Most High in the wilderness.

18             And they tempted God in their heart, By asking food for their soul.

19             And they spake against God: They said, “Can God prepare a table in the wilderness?”

20             Behold! he smote the reek, and gush out did the waters; And rivers overflowed. “Can he give bread also? “Will he prepare flesh for his people?”

21             Therefore Jehovah heard and was wroth: And a fire was kindled in Jacob: And wrath also ascended against Israel;

22             Because they believed not in God, And trusted not in his salvation.

23             But he had commanded the clouds from above, And the doors of heaven he had opened,

24             And had rained down upon them manna for food, And the corn of heaven he had given them:

25             The bread of the mighty ones man had eaten: Meat he had sent them to the full.

26             He caused to blow an east wind in the heavens; And he raised up by his power the south wind.

27             And he rained upon them flesh as dust, And as the sand of the sea leathered fowl;

28             And he caused it to fall in the midst of his camp, Round about his tabernacles.

29             And they did eat and were filled exceedingly, And their desire he brought to them.

30             They were not estranged from their desire: The meat was still in their mouth,

31             When the wrath of God ascended against them, And slew their fat ones, And brought low the chosen of Israel.

32             In all these things they sinned still, And believed not his wonders.

33             And he consumed in vanity their days, And their years in haste.

34             When he slew them, they sought him; They returned, and hastened early to God.

35             And they remembered that God was their Rock, And that the Most High God was their Redeemer.

36             And they flattered [him] with their mouth, And with their tongue they lied to him:

37             But their heart was not right before him, And they were not faithful in his covenant.

38             Yet he who is compassionate expiated their iniquity, And did not destroy them: And he multiplied to turn away his anger, And did not stir up all his indignation.

39             And he remembered that they were flesh; A breath that passeth, and returneth not.

40             How often did they provoke him in the desert, [And] grieve him in the wilderness!

41             And they returned and tempted God, And the Holy One of Israel they limited.

42             They remembered not his hand In the day that he redeemed them from the oppressor,

43             When he set in Egypt his signs, And his miracles in the field of Zoan.

44             When he turned into blood their rivers; And their streams, that they might not drink of them.

45             He sent among them a mixture which devoured them; And the frog which destroyed them.

46             And he gave to the caterpillar their fruit; And their labors to the locusts. ff100

47             And he destroyed with hail their vine, And their wild fig-trees with hailstones.

48             And he gave lip to the hail their cattle, And their flocks to thunderbolts.

49             He sent upon them the fierceness of his wrath, Fury, anger, and affliction, A mission of evil angels.

50             He made a path for his anger: He kept not from death their soul, And their cattle to the pestilence he shut up.

51             And he smote all the firstborn in Egypt: The beginning of [their] strength in the tents of Ham.

52             And he made to go forth like sheep his people, And led them like a flock in the wilderness.

53             And he conducted them in safety, and they were not afraid: And their enemies cover did the sea.

54             And he brought them to the border of his holiness, This mountain, which his right hand acquired.

55             And he expelled from before their face the heathen; And made them to fall into the lot of all inheritance; And caused to dwell in their tents the children of Israel.

56             But they tempted and provoked God Most High, And his testimonies they kept not.

57             And they turned back and dealt perfidiously like their fathers: They started aside like a bow that is deceitful.

58             And they provoked him to anger with their high places; And with their graven images they moved him to anger.

59             Hear it did God, and was wroth, And he abhorred exceedingly Israel.

60             And he forsook the habitation of Shiloh, The tabernacle where he dwelt among men.

61             And he gave into captivity his strength, And his beauty into the hand of the enemy.

62             And he shut up to the sword his people, And with his own inheritance was wroth.

63             Their chosen devour did the fire, And their virgins were not applauded.

64             Their priests by the sword did fall; And their widows made no lamentation.

65             But the Lord awoke as one asleep, As a mighty man who crieth out by reason of wine.

66             And he smote his enemies behind; Everlasting disgrace he put upon them.

67             And he rejected the tabernacle of Joseph, And the tribe of Ephraim he chose not:

68             But he chose the tribe of Judah, The mountain of Zion, which lie loved:

69             And built like high places his sanctuary, Like the earth which he hath founded for ever.

70             And he chose David his servant, And took him from the folds of sheep:

71             From following the suckling ewes he took him, To feed Jacob his people, And Israel his inheritance:

72             And he fed them in the integrity of his heart, And by the prudence of his hands he guided there.


A Psalm of Asaph

1               O God! come have the heathen into thy inheritance; They have polluted the temple of thy holiness; They have laid Jerusalem in heaps. [fowls of the heavens;

2               They have given the dead bodies of thy servants for food to the fowls of the heavens; The flesh of thy meek ones to the beasts of the earth.

3               They have shed their blood like water around Jerusalem: And there was not one to bury them.

4               We have been a reproach to our neighbors; A scorn and a derision to those who are around us.

5               How long, O Jehovah! wilt thou be wroth for ever? Burn like fire shall thy jealousy?

6               Pour out thy wrath upon the heathen who have not known thee, And upon the kingdoms which upon thy name do not call:

7               For they have devoured Jacob, And his dwelling they have laid waste.

8               Remember not against us former iniquities: Make haste, let thy compassions prevent us; For we are afflicted exceedingly.

9               Help us, O God of our salvation! for the glory of thy name; And deliver us, and be merciful to our sins, for the sake of thy name.

10             Wherefore should the heathen say, “Where is their God?” Let be made known among the heathen in our sight The vengeance of the blood of thy servants which is shed.

11             Let the sighing of the prisoner come before thy face: According to the greatness of thy arm, Reserve the children of death:  ff101

12             And recompense our neighbors sevenfold into their bosom, Their reproach with which they have reproached thee, O Jehovah!

13             And we thy people, and the sheep of thy pastures, Will confess to thee for ever; From generation to generation declaring thy praise.


To the Chief Musician upon Shoshannim Eduth. A Psalm of Asaph

1               O Shepherd of Israel, give ear! Who leadest Joseph like a flock; Thou who sittest between the cherubim, shine forth.

2               Before Ephraim, and Benjamin, and Manasseh, Stir up thy strength, and come for our salvation.

3               Turn us again, O God! and cause to shine thy face, And we shall be safe.

4               O Jehovah God of armies! How long wilt thou be incensed against the prayer of thy people?

5               Thou hast fed us with bread of tears; And hast given us tears to drink in great measure.

6               Thou hast made us a strife to our neighbors: And our enemies laugh at us among themselves.

7               O God of armies! turn us again, And cause to shine thy face upon us, And we shall be safe.

8               A vine out of Egypt thou hast brought: Thou hast expelled the heathen, and planted it,.

9               Thou hast cleansed the ground before it: Thou hast rooted its roots, And it hath filled the land.

10             Covered were the mountains with its shadow, And its branches were like the cedars of God.

11             It sent forth its branches to the sea, And to the river its shoots.

12             Why then hast thou broken down its hedges, So that tear it in pieces do all who pass by the way?

13             Wasted it hath the boar out of the forest; And the wild beast of the field hath eaten it up.

14             O God of armies! return, I beseech thee, Look down from heaven, and behold, And visit this vine,

15             And the vineyard which planted hath thy right hand, And [look] upon the shoot  ff102 which thou hast strengthened for thyself.

16             It is burnt with fire; it is cut down; At the rebuke of thy countenance they perish.

17             Let thy hand be upon the Man of thy right hand, Upon the son of man whom thou hast strengthened for thyself,

18             And we will not go back from thee: Thou shalt quicken us, and upon thy name we will call.

19             O Jehovah, God of armies! turn us again; Cause to shine thy face, And we shall be safe.


To the Chief Musician upon Gittith. Of Asaph

1               Exult to God our strength: Shout for joy to the God of Jacob.

2               Take a song, and bring forth the timbrel, The harp of pleasantness with the nablum.  ff103

3               Sound the trumpet  ff104 at the new moon; At the time appointed on the day of our sacrifice.

4               For a statute to Israel is this, A judgment to the God of Jacob.

5               For a testimony in Joseph he set it, When he went forth over the land of Egypt! A language which I understood not I heard.

6               “I removed from the burden his shoulder: “His hands from the pots were removed.

7               “In trouble thou didst cry, and I rescued thee: “I answered thee in the secret place of thunder: “I proved thee at the waters of Meribah. Selah.

8               “Hear, O my people! and I will protest to thee: “O Israel! if thou wilt hearken to me.

9               “Let there not be in thee a strange god: “Neither worship thou a foreign god.

10             “I am Jehovah thy God, “Who brought thee out of the land of Egypt: “Open wide thy mouth, and I will fill it.

11             “But my people hearkened not to my voice, “And Israel would have none of me.

12             “And I gave them up to the hardness of their heart: “They shall walk in their own counsels.

13             “O if my people had hearkened to me! “If Israel in my ways had walked!

14             “Soon their enemies I would have brought low, “And against their adversaries I would have turned my hand:

15             “The haters of Jehovah would have lied to him, “And their time should have been for ever:

16             “And I would have fed them with the fat of corn: “And from the rock with honey I would have satisfied thee.”


A Psalm of Asaph

1               God sitteth in the assembly of God: In the midst of the gods he will judge.

2               How long will ye judge unjustly? And the faces of the ungodly will ye lift up? Selah.

3               Judge the poor and the orphan; The helpless and the destitute justify ye.

4               Rescue the poor one and the afflicted one: From the hand of the ungodly ones deliver them.

5               But they know not, neither do they understand any thing:  In darkness they walk, Although moved are all the foundations of the earth.

6               As for me, I have said, “Ye are gods, “And children of the Most High all of you:

7               “Surely as a man ye shall die; “And as one [of the people,] O princes! ye shall fall.”

8               Arise, O God! judge the earth: For thou shalt inherit all nations.


A Song [or] Psalm, of Asaph

1               O God! keep not silence with thyself; Hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God!

2               For behold! thy enemies make a tumult: And those who hate thee have lifted up the head.

3               Against thy people they have craftily formed a design, And have consulted against thy hidden ones.

4               They have said, “Come and let us cut them off from being a nation; “And let there be no remembrance of the name of Israel any more.”

5               For they have consulted with the heart together; Against thee a covenant they have made.

6               The tents of Edom, and of the Ishmaelites; Of Moab and of the Hagarenes.

7               Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; The Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre.

8               Also Assur is associated with them: They have been an arm to the sons of Lot. Selah.

9               Do to them as to the Midianites, As to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook Kishon.

10             They perished at Endor; They became manure for the earth.

11             Make them, [even] their princes, like Oreb, and like Zeeb; And like Zebah, and like Zalmunna, all their princes.

12             Who have said, “Let us take in possession for ourselves “The habitations of God.”

13             O my God! make them like a whirling ball; Like stubble before the wind.

14             As fire burneth a forest, And as the flame kindleth the mountains,

15             So pursue them with thy tempest, And with thy whirlwind terrify them.

16             Fill their faces with shame; That they may seek thy name, O Jehovah!

17             Let them be ashamed, and terrified for ever;  ff105 And let them be confounded, and perish.

18             And let them know that thou, even thou, art, thy name Jehovah, Thou alone the Most High over all the earth.


To The Chief Musician Upon Gittith. A Psalm of the sons of Korah

1               How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Jehovah of armies!

2               Long, yea, even faint doth my soul after the courts of Jehovah: My heart and my flesh leap for joy towards the living God.

3               Also the sparrow hath found a house for herself, And the swallow a nest for herself, Where she may place her young ones: O thine altars! thou Jehovah of armies! my King and my God!

4               Blessed are those who dwell in thy house: Continually they will be praising thee. Selah.

5               Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; The ways [are] in their heart.

6               They passing through the valley of weeping, will together make it a fountain; Also the cisterns the rain will cover.

7               They will journey from strength to strength; Seen will be the God of gods in Zion.

8               O Jehovah, God of armies! hear my prayer: Hearken, O God of Jacob! Selah.

9               Our shield do thou behold, O God! And look upon the face of thy Christ.

10             For better is one day in thy courts than a thousand elsewhere. I would rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God, Than dwell in the tents of ungodliness.

11             For a sun and shield is Jehovah God to us; Grace and glory give will Jehovah; He will not withhold any good from those who walk uprightly.

12             O Jehovah of armies! Blessed is the man who confideth in thee.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of the sons of Korah

1               Thou hast been favorable, O Jehovah! to thy land: Thou hast brought back the captivity of Jacob.

2               Thou hast taken away the iniquity of thy people: Thou hast covered all their sins. Selah

3               Thou hast turned away all thy anger: Thou hast drawn back the fury of thy indignation.

4               Turn us, O God of our salvation! And relax thy anger against us.

5               Wilt thou for ever be angry with us? Wilt thou prolong thy wrath from age to age?

6               Wilt not thou being turned to us quicken us? And thy people will rejoice in thee.

7               Show us, O Jehovah! thy mercy; and thy salvation grant unto us.

8               I will hear what God Jehovah will speak: Surely he will speak peace to his people and to his meek ones, And they will not return to folly.

9               Surely near to those who fear him is his salvation, That dwell may glory in our land.

10             Mercy and truth shall meet together; Righteousness and peace shall kiss [each other.]

11             Truth out of the earth shall spring up; And righteousness from heaven shall look down.

12             Likewise Jehovah will give that which is good: And our land shall yield her increase.

13             Righteousness before him shall go; And shall set in the way her steps.


A Prayer of David

1               Incline, O Jehovah, thy ear, answer me; For poor and needy am I.

2               Keep my soul, for I am meek: O thou, my God! save thy servant who trusteth in thee.

3               Have compassion upon me, O Jehovah! For to thee do I cry daily.

4               Gladden the soul of thy servant; For to thee, O Lord! my soul I lift up.

5               For thou, O Lord! art good, and gracious, Plenteous in mercy to all who call upon thee.

6               Listen, O Jehovah! to my prayer, Attend to the voice of my supplications.

7               In the day of my trouble I will cry to thee: For thou wilt answer me.

8               There is none like unto thee, O Lord! among the gods; And there is none [who can work] according to thy works.

9               All the nations which thou hast made shall come, And shall worship before thy face, O Lord! And glory they shall give to thy name:

10             For great art thou, And doing wonders, thou God alone.

11             Show me, O Jehovah! thy ways; I will walk in thy truth: Unite my heart to fear thy name.

12             I will celebrate thee, O Lord my God! with my whole heart; And I will glorify thy name for ever;

13             For thy mercy hath been great towards me; And thou hast delivered my soul from the lower grave.

14             O God! the proud have risen up against me, And a company of mighty men have sought after my soul; And they have not set thee before them.

15             And thou, O Lord! [art] a God compassionate and gracious; Slow to anger; and plenteous in mercy and truth.

16             Look to me, and have pity upon me: Give thy strength to thy servant, And save the son of thy handmaid.

17             Make with me a sign for good: And see shall my adversaries and be ashamed; For thou, O Jehovah! hast secured me and comforted me.


A Psalm [or] Song of the sons of Korah

1               His foundations [are] in the holy mountains.

2               Love doth Jehovah the gates of Zion More than all the tabernacles of Jacob.

3               Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God! Selah.

4               I will make mention of Rahab, and Babel among those who know me: Behold the Philistines, and Tyre, with Ethiopia, He is born there! Selah.

5               And of Zion it shall be said, “Man and man is born in her; “And the Most High himself will establish her.”

6               The Lord will recount when he writeth the peoples, “He is born there.” Selah.

7               And the singers as the players upon instruments: All my springs are in thee.


A Song of a Psalm of the sons of Korah. To the Chief Musician, upon Machalath, to make humble. An instruction of Heman the Ezrahite

1               O Jehovah! God of my salvation! By day I cry, by night before thee.

2               Come into thy presence let my prayer; Incline thy ear to my cry;

3               For filled with troubles is my soul; And my life to hell  ff106 hath drawn near.

4               I am counted with those who go down to the sepulcher, ff107 I have been as a man who hath no strength:

5               Free among the dead, As the slain lying in the grave, Whom thou rememberest no more, And who from thy hand are cut off.

6               Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, In thick darkness, in the deeps.

7               Upon me lieth heavy thy indignation; And with all thy waves thou hast afflicted me. Selah.

8               Thou hast removed my acquaintances from me: Thou hast made me abominations to them: I am shut up that I cannot go forth.

9               My eye mourneth because of my affliction; I invoke thee, O Jehovah! daily: I stretch out to thee my hands.

10             Wilt thou for the dead do a miracle? Shall the dead rising up praise thee? Selah.

11             Shall thy loving-kindness be declared in the grave? Thy truth in destruction?

12             Shall thy wonders be known in darkness? And thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?

13             But as for me to thee, O Jehovah! have I cried, And in the morning my prayer shall prevent thee.

14             Wherefore, O Jehovah! wilt thou reject my soul? [Wherefore] wilt thou hide thy face from me?

15             Afflicted am I, and ready to die from my youth; I have suffered thy terrors by doubting.

16             Passed over me hath thy fierce wrath: Thy terrors have cut me off.

17             They have encompassed me as waters daily; They have surrounded me together.

18             Thou hast removed from me lover and companion; And my acquaintances are darkness.


An Instruction of Ethan, the Ezrahite

1               The mercies of Jehovah for ever will I sing: From generation to generation will I celebrate thy truth with my mouth.

2               For I have said, For ever Mercy shall be built up: The heavens thou shalt establish; thy truth [is] in them.

3               “I have made a covenant with my chosen: “I have sworn to David my servant:

4               “For ever will I establish thy seed, “And I will build up from age to age thy throne.” Selah.

5               And celebrate shall the heavens thy wondrous work, O Jehovah! Also thy truth in the congregation of the saints.

6               For who in the clouds can be compared to Jehovah? Who is like unto Jehovah among the sons of the gods?

7               God is terrible exceedingly in the assembly of the saints, And to be feared above all who are around him.

8               O Jehovah, God of armies! who is a strong God like thee? And thy truth is round about thee.

9               Thou governest the pride of the sea: When rise up do the waves thereof, thou restrainest them.

10             Thou hast overthrown Egypt as a wounded mail; With the arm of thy strength thou hast scattered thy enemies.

11             Thine are the heavens, thine also is the earth: The world, and the fullness thereof thou hast formed. ff108

12             The north and the south thou hast created: Tabor and Hermon in thy name shall exult.

13             Thou hast an arm of might: Thou wilt strengthen thy hand, Thou wilt exalt thy right hand.

14             Righteousness and judgment are the seat of thy throne: Mercy and truth shall go before thy face.

15             Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound! O Jehovah! in the brightness of thy countenance they shall walk.

16             In thy name shall they exult daily; And in thy righteousness shall they glory:

17             For the glory of their strength art thou; And in thy favor exalted shall be our horn.

18             For to Jehovah is our buckler; And to. the Holy One of Israel is our King.

19             Then thou spakest in vision to thy meek ones, And saidst, “I have laid help upon a Mighty One; “I have exalted one chosen from among the people.

20             “I have found David my servant; “With the oil of my holiness have I anointed him.

21             “Therefore, my hand shall be established with him: “Yea, my arm shall strengthen him.

22             “The enemy shall not exact upon him, “Nor shall the son of iniquity afflict him.

23             “And I will break in pieces before his face his oppressors; “And those who hate him I will smite.

24             “And my truth and my mercy shall be with him: “And in my name exalted shall be his horn.

25             “And I will set in the sea his hand, “And in the rivers his right hand.

26             “He shall cry to me, ‘My Father art thou,  “‘My God, the Rock of my salvation.’

27             “Also I myself my firstborn will make him, “Higher than the kings of the earth.

28             “And for ever will I keep for him my mercy, “And my covenant shall stand firm with him.

29             “And I will establish for ever his seed, “And his throne as the days of heaven.

30             “If forsake shall his children my law, “And in my judgments shall not walk;

31             “If my ordinances they shall profane, “And my statutes they shall not keep;

32             “Then will I visit with my rod their transgressions, “And with stripes their iniquity.

33             “But my mercy will I not withdraw from him; “Nor will I be false in my truth.

34             “I will not profane my covenant, “And that which is gone forth from my lips I will not alter.

35             “Once have I sworn by my holiness, “If to David I lie —

36             “His seed for ever shall endure; “And his throne as the sun before me.

37             “As the moon it shall be established for ever, “And [as] a faithful witness in the heaven.” Selah.

38             But thou, even thou, hast abhorred and rejected him; Thou hast been wroth with thy anointed.

39             Thou hast made to cease the covenant of thy servant; Thou hast profaned to the earth his crown.

40             Thou hast broken down all his walls; Thou hast made his fortresses a ruin.

41             Plundered him have all who pass by the way: He hath been a reproach to his neighbors.

42             Thou hast exalted the right hand of his oppressors; Thou hast made glad all his adversaries.

43             Also thou hast blunted the edge of his sword, And hast not made him to stand in battle.

44             Thou hast effaced his splendor, And his throne to the ground thou hast east down.

45             Thou hast shortened the days of his youth; Thou hast covered him with disgrace. Selah.

46             How long, O Jehovah! wilt thou hide thyself for ever? Burn like fire shall thy indignation?

47             Remember how short-lived I am!  ff109 Wherefore in vain shouldst thou have created all the sons of men?

48             What man shall live, and shall not see death? And shall deliver his soul from the hand of the grave? Selah.

49             Where are thy former compassions, O Lord? Thou hast sworn to David in thy truth.

50             Remember, O Lord! the reproach of thy servants: I have sustained in my bosom all those [reproaches] of the mighty peoples,

51             With which thy enemies have reproached thee, O Jehovah! With which they have reproached the footsteps of thy Messiah.

52             Blessed be Jehovah for evermore. Amen and Amen!



A Psalm of Moses, the man of God

1               O Lord! a dwelling-place thou hast been to us from generation to generation.

2               Before the mountains were brought forth, And [before] thou hadst formed the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.

3               Thou shalt turn man to destruction, And shalt say, “Return ye sons of Adam.”

4               For a thousand years in thy sight are as yesterday when it is past, And as a watch in the night.

5               Thou overflowest them;  ff111 they will be a sleep: In the morning as grass he shall grow.

6               In the morning he (or it) shall flourish and grow: At the evening he (or it) shall be cut down, and shall wither.

7               For we fail by thy anger, And by thy indignation are we affrighted.

8               Thou hast set our iniquities before thee, Our secret sins in the light of thy countenance.

9               For all our days are passed away in thy indignation: We have spent our years as if a thought.

10             In the days of our years there are seventy years; And if through strength, eighty years, Yet is their pride [but] grief and labor; For it passeth by quickly, and we fly away.

11             Who knoweth the power of thy anger? And according to thy fear is thy wrath.

12             Teach us so to number our days, And we shall apply our heart to wisdom.

13             Return, O Jehovah! how long? Be pacified towards thy servants.

14             Satiate us early with thy goodness, And we will exult and rejoice all our days.

15             Make us joyful according to the days of our affliction; According to the years in which we have seen evil.

16             Let thy work appear towards thy servants, And thy glory upon their children.

17             And let there be the beauty of the Lord our God upon us; And the work of our hands direct thou upon us; Yea, the work of our hands direct thou.


1               He who dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High, Under the shadow of the Almighty shall abide.

2               I will say to Jehovah, “Thou art my hope and my fortress:” He is my God; I will hope in him.

3               Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler, From the noxious pestilence:

4               With his wings he shall protect thee; And under his feathers thou shalt be safe; Thy shield and thy buckler shall be his truth.

5               Thou shalt not be afraid at the terror of the night; At the arrow which flieth by day;

6               At the destruction which in darkness walketh: At the pestilence which wasteth at noon-day.

7               There shall fall at thy side a thousand, And ten thousand at thy right hand: To thee it shall not come nigh.

8               Only with thine eyes shalt thou behold, And the reward of the ungodly thou shalt see.

9               Because thou, O Jehovah! art my protection; The Most High thou hast made thy refuge.

10             There shall not befall thee [any] evil, And the plague shall not come nigh thy tabernacle:

11             For to his angels he hath given charge concerning thee, To keep thee in all thy ways.

12             Upon their hands they shall bear thee, Lest thou dash against a stone thy foot.

13             Over the lion and asp thou shalt walk; Thou shalt tread upon the young lion and dragon.

14             Because on me he hath reposed, I will deliver him; I will exalt him because he hath known my name.

15             He will call upon me, and I will answer him: With him will I be in trouble; I will deliver him, and will glorify him.

16             With length of days will I satisfy him, And will show him my salvation.


1               It is good to give thanks to Jehovah, To sing psalms to thy name, O Most High!

2               To proclaim in the morning thy goodness, And thy truth in the night.

3               Upon the psaltery, and upon the nablum,  ff112 Upon higgaion with the harp. ff113

4               For thou hast made me glad, O Jehovah! in thy works; In the works of thy hands I will exult.

5               How magnificent are thy works, O Jehovah! Exceeding deep are thy thoughts.

6               The man that is foolish shall not know them, Neither shall he who is void of wisdom understand them.

7               When the wicked flourish as the grass, And all the workers of iniquity spring up, [It is] that they may perish for ever.

8               But thou art exalted for evermore, O Jehovah!

9               For to! thine enemies, O Jehovah! For to! thine enemies shall perish; Scattered shall be all the workers of iniquity:

10             But thou shalt exalt my horn like that of the unicorn. I am anointed with fresh oil.

11             And mine eye shall see [ruin] on my oppressors: [Of destruction,] on those who rise up against me — On those who trouble me hear shall my ears.

12             The righteous as the palmtree shall flourish, As the cedar in Lebanon he shall be multiplied.

13             Planted in the house of Jehovah, In the courts of our God, they shall flourish.

14             Still shall they bud forth in old age; Fat and green shall they be;

15             That they may proclaim that upright is Jehovah, my Rock, And that there is no iniquity in him.


1               Jehovah hath reigned, He hath put on glory, Put on hath Jehovah strength; He hath girded himself: Also he hath established the world, It shall not be moved.

2               Fixed is thy throne;  [Even as] from that time  ff114 thou art, and from eternity. ff115

3               Raised have the floods, O Jehovah! Raised have the floods their voice; Raise shall the floods their waves.

4               By reason of the voices  ff116 of the great waters Terrible are the waves of the sea: Terrible on high is Jehovah.

5               Thy testimonies are verified exceedingly; To thy house is glory; The holiness of Jehovah is for length of days.


1               O Jehovah! God of vengeances! O God of vengeances! shine forth.

2               Lift up thyself; O judge of the earth! Render a reward to the proud.

3               How long shall the ungodly, O Jehovah! How long shall the ungodly triumph?

4               They pour forth, they speak hard things, Extol themselves do all the workers of iniquity.

5               Thy people, O Jehovah! they break in pieces; And thy inheritance they afflict:

6               The widow, and the stranger they slay, And the orphans they put to death.

7               And they have said, “God shall not see, “The God of Jacob shall not know..”

8               Understand, ye stupid among the people! And ye fools! when will ye be wise?

9               He who planted the ear shall not He hear? He who formed the eye, shall not He see?

10             He who chastiseth the nations, shall not He correct? He who teacheth man knowledge?

11             Jehovah knoweth the thoughts of men that they are vain.

12             Blessed is the man whom thou hast instructed, O God! And out of thy law hast taught;

13             To give him rest from days of evil, Whilst there is digged for the ungodly [man] a pit.

14             Surely Jehovah will not cast off his people, And his inheritance he will not forsake.

15             For return shall judgment unto righteousness, And [follow] after him shall all the upright in heart.

16             Who will rise up for me against my adversaries? Who will stand up for me against the workers of iniquity?

17             Unless Jehovah had been a help to me, My soul had well-nigh dwelt in silence.

18             If I said, “Slidden hath my foot,” Thy goodness, O Jehovah! hath sustained me.

19             In the multitude of my thoughts, Within me thy comforts cheer my soul.

20             Shall the throne of iniquities have fellowship with thee, Framing molestation for law?

21             They will gather together against the soul of the righteous, And the blood of the innocent they will condemn.

22             But Jehovah hath been to me for a fortress; And my God for the rock of my confidence:

23             And he shall retribute upon them their own iniquity, And in their wickedness he shall destroy them; Destroy them shall Jehovah our God.


1               Come let us exult to Jehovah; Let us shout for joy to the Rock of our salvation.

2               Let us come before his face with praise, In psalms let us shout for joy unto him.

3               For a great God is Jehovah, And a great King, above all gods.

4               For in his hand are the deep places of the earth; And the heights of the mountains are his.

5               For his is the sea, and he made it; And the dry land his hands formed.

6               Come ye, let us worship, and fall down; Let us kneel before the face of Jehovah, our Maker.

7               For he is our God, And we [are] the people of his pastures, And the flock of his hand; To-day, if his voice ye will hear,

8               Harden not your heart, as in Meribah; As in the day of Massah in the desert,

9               When tempt me did your fathers; They proved me, though they had seen my work.

10             Forty years I strove with this generation, And said, “They are a people erring in heart, “And they have not known my ways.”

11             Wherefore I swear in my wrath, “If they shall enter into my rest —”


1               Sing ye to Jehovah a song that is new, Sing to Jehovah all the earth.

2               Sing to Jehovah, bless his name; Publish from day to day his salvation.

3               Tell among the heathen his glory; Among all the peoples his wonders.

4               For great is Jehovah, and to be praised highly; Terrible [is] he above all gods.

5               For all the gods of the nations are vanities; But Jehovah made the heavens.

6               Strength and majesty go before him; Power and glory are in his sanctuary.

7               Ascribe to Jehovah, O ye congregations of peoples! Ascribe to Jehovah glory and strength.

8               Ascribe to Jehovah the glory of his name; Bring an offering, and enter into his courts.

9               Worship before Jehovah in the beauty of the sanctuary; Tremble before his face let the whole earth.

10             Say ye among the heathen, “Jehovah reigneth; “Truly established shall be the world, it shall not be moved: “He shall judge the peoples in righteousness.”

11             Rejoice let the heavens, and exult let the earth; Thunder let the sea, and the fullness thereof.

12             Exult let the field, and all that is in it; Shout for joy together let all the trees of the wood

13             Before Jehovah; for he cometh, For he cometh to judge the earth: He shall judge the world in righteousness, And the peoples in his truth.


1               Jehovah reigneth: Exult let the earth, Rejoice let the great islands.

2               Clouds and darkness are round about him; Righteousness and judgment are the seat of his throne.

3               A fire before his face shall go, And shall burn up round about his enemies.

4               Enlighten did his lightnings the world; See and tremble shall the earth.

5               The mountains like wax melted at the presence of Jehovah, At the presence of the Lord of the whole earth.

6               Declared have the heavens his righteousness, And seen have all the peoples his glory.

7               Confounded be all those who serve graven images, Who glory in their inventions: Worship before him let all the gods.

8               Heard and rejoiced hath Zion; Exulted have the daughters of Judah, Because of thy judgments, O Jehovah!

9               For thou, O Jehovah! art high above all the earth: Exceedingly exalted art thou above all gods.

10             Ye who love Jehovah, hate evil: He preserveth the souls of his meek ones; From the hand of the ungodly he will deliver them.

11             Light is sown for the righteous, And for the upright in heart joy.

12             Rejoice, O ye righteous! in Jehovah, And celebrate the memory of his holiness.


A Psalm

1               Sing ye to Jehovah a song that is new, For marvels he hath done: Salvation wrought for him hath his own right hand, And the arm of his holiness.

2               Made known hath Jehovah his salvation: In the sight of the heathen he hath revealed his righteousness.

3               He hath remembered his goodness and his truth towards the house of Israel: Seen have all the ends of the earth the salvation of our God.

4               Exult to Jehovah all the earth; Make a loud noise, and exult, and sing psalms.

5               Sing psalms to Jehovah upon the harp, Upon the harp, and with the voice of song:

6               With trumpets, and the voice of the cornet, Sing psalms before the King, Jehovah.

7               Roar let the sea, and the fullness thereof; The world, and those who dwell therein.

8               Let the floods clap the hand: Together let the mountains exult

9               Before Jehovah: for he cometh to judge the earth; He shall judge the world in righteousness, And the peoples with rectitude.


1               Jehovah reigneth; tremble let the people: He dwelleth between the cherubim; moved let be the earth.

2               Jehovah in Zion is great; And exalted is he above all nations.

3               They shall acknowledge thy great and terrible name: It is holy.

4               And the strength of the king loveth judgment; Thou hast established rectitude; Judgement and righteousness in Jacob thou hast done.

5               Exalt ye Jehovah our God, And worship at his footstool: He is holy.

6               Moses and Aaron among his priests, And Samuel among those who call upon his name; They cried to Jehovah and he answered them.

7               In the pillar of the cloud he spake to them: They kept his testimonies And his statutes which he gave them.

8               O Jehovah, our God! thou didst answer them: A God propitious thou wast to them, And [yet] taking vengeance upon their works.

9               Exalt ye Jehovah our God, And worship at the mountain of his holiness; For holy is Jehovah our God.


A Psalm for praising

1               Sing aloud to Jehovah, ff117 all ye inhabitants of the earth.

2               Serve Jehovah with gladness; Come into his presence with exultation.

3               Know that Jehovah He is God; He made us, and not we ourselves: We are his people, and the flock of his pasture.

4               Enter his gates with praise, his courts with exultation; Celebrate him, ff118 bless his name:

5               For good is Jehovah, For ever endureth his mercy, And from generation to generation his truth.


A Psalm of David

1               Of mercy and judgment I will sing; To thee, O Jehovah, will I sing psalms.

2               I will act wisely in a perfect way, Until thou comest to me; I will walk in the integrity of my heart in the midst of my house.

3               I will not set before my eyes a wicked thing; The work of those who turn aside I hate; It shall not adhere to me.

4               A heart perverse shall depart from me; Evil I will not know.

5               He who slandereth in secret his neighbor, him will I destroy: The lofty in look and the wide in heart him I will not suffer.

6               My eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, That they may dwell with me: He who walketh in an upright way, [Even] he shall minister to me.

7               He shall not dwell in the midst of my house, he who worketh deceit; He who speaketh lies shall not be established before my eyes.

8               Early will I destroy all the ungodly of the land; That I may cut off from the city of Jehovah all the workers of iniquity.


A Prayer for the afflicted when he shall be shut up, and shall pour out his meditation before Jehovah

1               O Jehovah! hear my prayer, And let my cry to thee come.

2               Hide not thy face from me in the day of my afflictions; Incline to me thy ear; In the day when I cry, make haste, answer me.

3               For consumed like smoke are  ff119 my days, And my bones as a hearth are burnt up.

4               Smitten like grass, and withered is my heart, Because I have forgotten to eat my bread.

5               By reason of the voice of my groaning, Cleave do my bones to my flesh.

6               I am become like a pelican of the desert, I am become as an owl of the solitudes;

7               I have watched and am as the sparrow Which is solitary upon the roof of the house.

8               Daily reproach me do my enemies; And those who are mad against me, by me have sworn.

9               For ashes as bread I have eaten, And my drink with weeping  ff120 I have mingled.

10             Because of thy indignation and thy wrath; For thou hast lifted me up and cast me down.

11             My days are as a shadow which declineth; And as grass I am dried up.

12             And thou, O Jehovah! for ever shalt dwell, And thy memorial from generation to generation.

13             Thou thyself shalt arise, thou shalt have mercy upon Zion; For it is time to compassionate her, For come is the appointed time.

14             For take pleasure do thy servants in her stones, And upon her dust they will have compassion.

15             And fear shall the Gentiles the name of Jehovah, And all the kings of the earth thy glory.

16             For Jehovah hath builded Zion, He hath appeared in his glory.

17             He hath regarded the prayer of the solitary, And hath not despised their prayer.

18             This shall be written for the generation to come, And the people [to be] created shall praise him.

19             For he hath looked from the high place of his holiness, Jehovah from the heavens upon the earth hath looked,

20             To hear the groaning of the prisoners To release the sons of death;

21             That declared in Zion may be the name of Jehovah, And his praise in Jerusalem;

22             When gathered shall be the peoples together, And the kingdoms to serve Jehovah.

23             He hath afflicted in the way my strength, He hath shortened my days.

24             I said, O my God! take me not away in the midst of my days; For throughout generations of generations are thy years.

25             Aforetime the earth thou hast founded; And the work of thy hands serve the heavens.

26             They shall perish but thou shalt endure; And they all as a garment shall grow old; As a vesture thou shalt change them, and they shall be changed.

27             But thou art always the same, And thy years shall not fail.

28             The children of thy servants shall dwell, And their seed before thee shall be established.


Of David

1               Bless, O my soul! Jehovah, And all my inward parts bless his holy name.

2               Bless, O my soul! Jehovah, And forget not all his bounties.

3               Who forgiveth all thy iniquities; Who healeth all thy infirmities;

4               Who redeemeth from the grave thy life; Who crowneth thee with mercy and compassions;

5               Who satisfieth with good thy mouth: Renewed as that of the eagle shall be thy youth.

6               Execute doth Jehovah righteousness And judgments for all who are oppressed.

7               He made known his ways to Moses, To the children of Israel his doings.

8               Compassionate and merciful is Jehovah, Slow to anger and abundant in goodness.

9               He will not always chide; Neither for ever will he keep [his anger.]

10             Not according to our sins hath he dealt with us, Nor according to our iniquities hath he recompensed us.

11             For in proportion to the height of the heavens above the earth, Hath been the greatness of his goodness upon those who fear him.

12             As far distant as is the east from the west, So far hath he removed from us our sills.

13             As a father is compassionate towards his children, So is Jehovah compassionate towards those who fear him.

14             For he knoweth of what we are made; He hath remembered that dust are we.

15             Man… as grass are his days: As a flower of the field, so he flourisheth.

16             As soon as the wind passeth over it, it is not; And know it no more shall the place thereof.

17             But the goodness of Jehovah is from everlasting to everlasting upon those who fear him, And his righteousness upon the children’s children;

18             To those who keep his covenant, And are mindful of his statutes to do them.

19             Jehovah in the heavens hath established his throne; And his kingdom over all hath dominion.

20             Bless Jehovah, ye his angels mighty in strength! Who do his commandment, in hearing the voice of his word.

21             Bless Jehovah, all ye his armies! Ye ministers of his, who do his pleasure.

22             Bless Jehovah, all ye his works! In all places of his dominion: Bless, O my soul! Jehovah.


1               Bless, O my soul! Jehovah: O Jehovah, my God! thou art great exceedingly; With praise and honor thou hast clothed thyself.

2               Being arrayed with light as with a garment; Spreading out the heavens as a curtain;

3               Flooring in the waters his upper rooms; Making the clouds his chariot; Walking upon the wings of the wind:

4               Making the winds his messengers; His ministers a fire that flameth.

5               He hath founded the earth upon its foundations, So that it shall not be moved for ever.

6               With the deep as with a garment he hath covered it: Above the mountains stand shall the waters.

7               At thy rebuke they shall flee; At the voice of thy thunder they shall suddenly pass away.

8               Ascend shall the mountains and descend shall the valleys To the place which thou hast founded for them.

9               A boundary thou hast set, they shall not pass over it: They shall not return to cover the earth.

10             Sending out springs by the valleys, Which between the hills shall run.

11             Drink thereof shall all the beasts of the field: Quench shall the wild asses their thirst.

12             Nigh time the fowl of the heaven shall dwell, From the midst of the branches they shall send out their voice.

13             Watering the mountains from his chambers: From the fruit of thy works satisfied shall be the earth.

14             Making grass to grow for cattle, And herb for the service of mm: That he may bring forth bread out of the earth.

15             And wine cheereth the heart of man, To make his face to shine with oil, And bread sustaineth the heart of man.

16             Satiated shall be the trees of Jehovah; The cedars of Lebanon which he hath planted:

17             For there the birds build their nests: [As for] the stork, the fir trees are her dwelling.

18             The high mountains are for the deer; The rocks a place of shelter for the hedgehogs.

19             He hath made the moon for set times: The sun knoweth his going down.

20             Thou makest darkness, and it is night; Wherein do creep forth all the beasts of the forest.

21             The lions roar after their prey, And in seeking from God their food.

22             Rise shall the sun, and they shall gather themselves together, And in their dens shall lie down.

23             Go forth shall man to his work, And to his labor, until the evening.

24             How magnificent are thy works! O Jehovah! All things in wisdom thou hast made: Filled is the earth with thy riches.

25             This sea great, and wide in extent; Therein are creeping things inntanerable, Beasts both small and great.

26             There the ships go, And the leviathan, which thou hast formed to sport in it.

27             All things on thee do wait, That thou mayest give them their food in its season.

28             Thou shalt give it them, they shall gather [it:] Thou shalt open thy hand, they shall be satisfied with good.

29             Thou shalt hide thy face, they shall be afraid: Thou shalt take away their spirit, they shall die, and to their dust shall return.

30             Thou shalt send forth thy Spirit, they shall be created: And thou shalt renew the face of the earth.

31             Glory be to Jehovah for ever: Rejoice let Jehovah in his works.

32             He looketh upon the earth, and it trembleth: If he touch the mountains, they shall smoke.

33             I will sing to Jehovah whilst I live: I will sing psalms to my God as long as I have my being.

34             Let my speech be acceptable to him: I will rejoice in Jehovah.

35             Perish let sinners from the earth, And the ungodly till they cease to be any more. Bless, O my soul! Jehovah. Hallelujah.


1               Celebrate ye Jehovah; invoke his name: Announce among the peoples his works.

2               Sing ye to him: sing psalms to him: Speak of all his wonders.

3               Rejoice ye in his holy name: Rejoice let the heart of those who seek Jehovah.

4               Seek ye Jehovah, and his strength; Seek his face continually.

5               Remember the marvelous works which he hath done; His wonders, and the judgments of his mouth.

6               Ye seed of Abraham, his servant, The sons of Jacob his chosen one:

7               He is Jehovah our God; Through all the earth are his judgments.

8               He hath remembered for ever his covenant, The word which he commanded to a thousand generations:

9               Which he made with Abraham, And his oath which he swore to Isaac;

10             And established it to Jacob for a law, To Israel for an everlasting covenant:

11             Saying, “To thee will I give the land of Canaan, “The cord of your inheritance.”

12             When they were very few in number; And strangers in it;

13             And walked about from nation to nation, From one kingdom to another people,

14             He did not suffer men to hurt them; And rebuked for their sake kings;

15             Saying, “Touch not my anointed ones, “And to my prophets do no harm.”

16             And he called a famine upon the land; All the stall of bread he broke.

17             He sent before them a man, For a slave sold was Joseph.

18             They afflicted in the fetters his feet: The iron entered into his soul:

19             Until the time that his word came: The word of Jehovah tried him.

20             Send did the king and loosed him; Even the ruler of the peoples, and freed him.

21             He made him lord over his house; And ruler over all his substance:

22             To bind his princes at his pleasure; And to teach his elders wisdom.

23             And come did Israel into Egypt; And Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham.

24             And he increased his people exceedingly, He multiplied them above their oppressors.

25             He turned their heart so that they hated his people, And dealt craftily with his servants.

26             He sent Moses, his servant; Aaron, whom he chose.

27             They set among them the words of his signs, And his miracles in the land of Ham.

28             He sent darkness, and made it dark; And they were not rebellious against his words.

29             He turned their waters into blood, And killed their fish.

30             Their land brought forth frogs, Yea even within the chambers of their kings.

31             He spake and there came a swarm of flies, Lice in all their borders.

32             He gave them for rain, hail, Flaming fire upon their land.

33             And he smote their vines and their fig-trees; And destroyed every tree of their border.

34             He spake, and there came the locust, And the caterpillar without number;

35             And they devoured all the herbage in their land, And consumed the fruit of their ground.

36             And he smote all the firstborn in their land, The beginning of all their strength.

37             And he brought them forth with silver and gold: And not one among their tribes was a feeble person.

38             Glad was Egypt at their departure; For fallen upon them had their terror.

39             He spread out a cloud for a covering; And fire to give light by the night.

40             He  ff121 asked, and brought quails, And with the bread of heaven he filled them.

41             He opened the rock, and there gushed out waters; They ran in the dry places like a river.

42             For he remembered the word of his holiness, Which he had spoken to Abraham his servant.

43             And he brought forth his people with joy, With exultation his chosen ones.

44             And he gave them the lands of the nations: And the labor of the peoples they inherited.

45             That they might keep his ordinances, And that his law they might observe. Hallelujah.



1               Celebrate Jehovah, for he is good; For to everlasting is his mercy.

2               Who shall express the mighty acts of Jehovah? Who shall declare all his praise?

3               Blessed are they who keep judgment, Blessed is he who doeth righteousness at all times.

4               Remember me, O Jehovah! with the good will [which thou bearest towards] thy people. Visit me with thy salvation;

5               That I may see the good of thy chosen ones, That I may rejoice in the joy of thy nation, That I may glory with thy heritage.

6               We have sinned with our fathers, We have acted iniquitously, we have done wickedly.

7               Our fathers in Egypt understood not thy wonders; They remembered not the multitude of thy kindnesses; And they rebelled at the sea, at the Red Sea.

8               Yet he saved them for the sake of his own name, That. he might cause to be known his power.

9               And he rebuked the Red Sea, and it was dried up; And he made them walk in the deeps as in a desert.

10             And he saved them from the hand of the enemy, And redeemed them from the hand of the adversary.

11             And cover did the waters their oppressors: One of them was not left.

12             Then they believed his words; They sang his praise.

13             They made haste, they forgat his works; They did not wait for his counsel;

14             And they lusted greatly in the desert, And tempted God in the wilderness.

15             And he gave them their request; But sent leanness into their souls.

16             And they envied Moses in the camp, And Aaron, the saint of Jehovah.

17             Open did the earth and swallowed up Dathan, And covered over the tent of Abiram.

18             And kindled was a fire in their company, The flame burned up the ungodly.

19             They made a calf in Horeb, And worshipped before the molten image.

20             And they changed their glory Into the likeness of an ox that eateth hay.

21             They forgat God their Savior, Who had done great things in Egypt;

22             Miracles in the land of Ham, Terrible things at the Red Sea.

23             And he said that he would destroy them, Unless Moses his chosen had stood in the breach before his face, To turn away his wrath, that he might not destroy them.

24             And they despised the land of pleasantness; They believed not his word;

25             And they mutinied in their tents, They hearkened not to the voice of Jehovah.

26             And he lifted tip his hand against them, To destroy them in the desert:

27             And to scatter their seed among the heathen, And to disperse them throughout the lands.

28             And they joined themselves to Baal-peor, And ate the sacrifices of things dead.

29             And they provoked God to anger by their works: And break in upon them did the plague.

30             Then stood up Phinehas, and executed judgment: And stayed was the plague.

31             And that was imputed to him for righteousness From generation to generation, even for ever.

32             And they provoked him to anger at the waters of strife, And it turned out in to Moses on their account:

33             For they embittered his spirit, And he spake [rashly] with his lips.

34             They did not destroy the nations, As Jehovah had commanded them:

35             And they were mingled with the heathen, And learned their works:

36             And they served their idols; Which were to them for ruin.

37             And they sacrificed their sons and their daughters to demons;

38             And they shed innocent blood, The blood of their sons and of their daughters, Whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan; And polluted was the land with bloods.

39             And they were defiled in their own works, And were adulterous in their own inventions.

40             Then  ff122 burn did the wrath of Jehovah against his people, And he abhorred his inheritance;

41             And he delivered them into the hands of the heathen; And those had dominion over them who hated them:

42             And subdue them did their enemies, And they were afflicted under their hand.

43             Many times did he deliver them; But they provoked him with their counsels, And were oppressed in their iniquity.

44             Yet he saw when they were in distress, And heard their cry:

45             And he remembered towards them his covenant; And it repented him according to the greatness of his mercies.

46             And he made them to find pity Before all who had led them captive.

47             Save us, O Jehovah, our God! And gather us from among the heathen, That we may celebrate thy holy name, That we may glory in thy praise.

48             Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Israel, From everlasting to everlasting; And say let all the people, Amen. Praise ye Jehovah.



1               “Celebrate Jehovah, for he is good, “For to everlasting is his mercy.”

2               Say this let the redeemed of Jehovah, Whom he hath redeemed from the hand of the afflicter.

3               Whom he hath gathered from the lands, From the east, and from the west, From the north, and from the south.

4               They wandered from the way in the solitary desert; A city of habitation they found not:

5               Hungry, also thirsty, So that their soul within them fainted.

6               Then they cried to Jehovah in their distress, And from their troubles he delivered them.

7               And he directed them by a right way, That they might come to a city of habitation.

8               Let them celebrate before Jehovah his mercy, His marvelous works before the sons of men.

9               For he hath satisfied the soul that longeth, And the soul that is famished he hath filled with good.

10             Those who dwell in darkness, and in the shadow of death, Bound in affliction and iron;

11             Because they rebelled against the words of God, And the counsel of the Most High they despised:

12             And he humbled with trouble their heart; They were afflicted and there was none to help them.

13             They cried to Jehovah in their distress: From their troubles he delivered them.

14             He rescued them from darkness and the shadow of death, And their chains he broke asunder.

15             Let them celebrate before Jehovah his mercy, And his marvelous works before the sons of men.

16             For he hath broken the gates of brass, And the bars of iron he hath shivered.

17             Fools on account of the way of their transgression; And on account of their iniquities are afflicted.

18             All food loathe doth their soul; And they approach the gates of death.

19             Then they cry to Jehovah in their trouble: From their straits he sayeth them.

20             He sendeth his word, and healeth them, And rescueth them from all their corruptions.

21             Let them celebrate before Jehovah his mercy, And his marvelous works before the sons of men.

22             And let them sacrifice sacrifices of praise, And announce his works with exultation.

23             Those who go down to the sea in ships, Trading in the great waters,

24             These men see the works of Jehovah, His wonders in the deep.

25             He speaketh and raiseth the wind of storm, And lifteth high the waves thereof.

26             They mount up to the heavens, They descend into the deeps; Their soul in  ff124 their distress is melted away.

27             They are tossed and stagger as a drunken man, And all their skill is swallowed up.

28             And they cry to Jehovah in their distress, And from their troubles he bringeth them out.

29             He maketh the storm a calm, So that quiet are the waves thereof.

30             And they rejoice because they are stilled; And he leadeth them unto the haven of their desire.

31             Let them celebrate before Jehovah his mercy, And his wonders before the sons of men;

32             And let them exalt him in the congregation of the people, And in the assembly of the elders let them praise him.

33             He turneth rivers into a desert, And springs of water into dryness;

34             A land that is fruitful into saltness, For the wickedness of those who dwell therein.

35             He turneth the desert into a pool of water, And the land of barrenness into springs of water.

36             And there he causeth to dwell the famished, That they may prepare a city of habitation;

37             And sow fields, and plant vineyards, And eat the fruit of increase.

38             And he blesseth them, and they multiply exceedingly; And their cattle he doth not diminish,.

39             Afterwards they are diminished and brought low, By reason of anguish, affliction, and sorrow.

40             He poureth contempt upon princes, And maketh them to wander in the waste where there is no path.

41             And he raiseth the afflicted from his misery, And maketh like a flock [his] families.

42             See shall the upright ones and shall rejoice: And all iniquity shall stop her mouth.

43             Who is wise, and he will observe these things, And they shall understand the loving-kindness of Jehovah?


A Song of a Psalm of David

1               Prepared is my heart, O God! prepared is my heart, I will chant and will sing psalms, even with my glory.

2               Awake, psaltery and harp: I will arise at the dawn of day.

3               I will celebrate thee, among the peoples, O Jehovah! And will sing psalms to thee among the nations:

4               For great above the heavens, is thy goodness; And unto the clouds is thy truth.

5               Be thou exalted above the heavens, O God! And above all the earth thy glory:

6               That thy beloved ones may be delivered: Save by thy right hand, and hear me.

7               God hath spoken in his holiness; I will rejoice: I will divide Shechem, And the valley of Succoth I will measure.

8               Mine is Gilead, mine is Manasseh; And Ephraim is the strength of my head; Judah my lawgiver.

9               Moab the pot for my washing; Over Edom will I cast my shoe; Over Palestina will I triumph.

10             Who will lead me into the city fortified? Who will lead me even into Edom?

11             Wilt not thou, O God! who hadst cast us off? And [thou] O God! [who] didst not go forth with our armies?

12             Grant us relief from  ff125 trouble; For vain is the help of man.

13             Through God we shall do valiantly, And he shall tread down our adversaries.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               O God of my praise! be not silent;

2               For the mouth of the ungodly man, and the mouth of deceit upon me are opened; They have talked with me with a tongue of guile:

3               And with words of hatred they have encompassed me, And have fought against me without a cause.

4               [In return] for my love they have been my adversaries; But I set myself to prayer.

5               And they have requited me evil for good, And hatred for my love.

6               Set thou over him an ungodly man; And let the adversary stand at his right hand.

7               When he is judged let him go forth condemned,  ff126 And let his prayer be turned into sin.

8               Let his days be few; His office let another receive.

9               Let his children be fatherless, And his wife a widow.

10             And in wandering let his children wander and beg,  ff127 And seek [for bread] out of their waste places. ff128

11             Catch let the extortioner all which he hath, And let strangers plunder his labor.

12             Let there be none prolonging mercy to him; And let there be none to have compassion upon his orphans.

13             Let his posterity be destroyed;  ff129 In the generation following let their name be blotted out.

14             Remembered let be the iniquity of his fathers before Jehovah; And the wickedness  ff130 of his mother let it not be blotted out.

15             Let them be before Jehovah continually, And let him blot out from the earth their memorial;

16             Because he remembered not to do mercy, And persecuted the man [that was] wretched and poor, And afflicted in heart, to put him to death.

17             He loved cursing, and let it come upon him: He delighted not in blessing, and let it be far from him.

18             And let him be clothed with cursing as with a garment; And let it come as water into his entrails, And as oil into his bones.

19             Let it be to him as a mantle to cover him, And as a girdle with which continually he may gird himself

20             Let this be the recompense  ff131 of my adversaries from Jehovah, And of those who speak evil against my soul.

21             But thou, O Jehovah, my Lord! deal thou with me for the sake of thy name: Because good is thy mercy, deliver me;

22             For poor and needy I am, And my heart is wounded within me.

23             As a shadow when it declineth, I walk about; I am shaken off as the locust.

24             My knees are become feeble through fasting; And my flesh hath fallen away from its fatness.

25             But I am become a reproach to them; When they see me they shake their head.

26             Help me, O Jehovah, my God! Save me according to thy mercy.

27             And they shall know that this is thy hand, That thou, O Jehovah! hast done it.

28             They shall curse, but thou shalt bless; When they rise up they shall be put to shame; But thy servant shall rejoice.

29             Clothed shall be my adversaries with disgrace, And they shall be covered as with a garment with their own shame.

30             I will praise Jehovah greatly with my mouth; And in the midst of the great I will celebrate him:

31             Because he standeth at the right hand of the poor one, To save from condemnations his soul.


A Psalm of David

1               Jehovah said to my Lord, “Sit thou at my right hand, “Until I make thy enemies thy footstool.”

2               The scepter of thy power send shall Jehovah out of Zion: Rule thou in the midst of thy enemies.

3               Thy people shall come with voluntary offerings, On the day of the assembling of thy army, In beauty of holiness: From the womb as from the morning dawn To thee has been the dew of thy youth.

4               Sworn hath Jehovah, and he will not repent: “Thou art a priest for ever “According to the manner of Melchisedek.”

5               The Lord at thy right hand Hath crushed in the day of his wrath kings.

6               He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill all with ruins; He shall crush the head over a great country.

7               Of the torrent in the way he shall drink, Therefore shall he lift up the head.



1               a I will celebrate Jehovah with my whole heart, b In the congregation of the just, and in the assembly.

2               g Great are the works of Jehovah, d Sought out of all who have pleasure in them.

3               h Beautiful and honorable  ff132 is his work; w And his righteousness endureth for ever.

4               z He hath made a memorial by his wonderful works: j Merciful and compassionate is Jehovah.

5               f A portion he hath given to those who fear him: y He will remember for ever his covenant.

6               k The might of his works he hath proclaimed to his people, l To give them the heritage of the heathen.

7               m The works of his hands are truth and judgment: n True are all his statutes,

8               s And established for ever — [ Made in truth and rectitude.

9               p Redemption he hath sent to his people; x He hath commanded for ever his covenant: q Holy and terrible is his name.

10             r The beginning of wisdom is the fear of Jehovah; A good understanding have all those who do them: t His praise endureth for ever.



1               a Blessed is the man who feareth Jehovah; b In his commandments he will delight greatly.

2               g Mighty on the earth shall be his seed: d The generation of the upright ones shall be blessed.

3               h Wealth and riches shall be in his house; w And his righteousness endureth for ever.

4               z There ariseth in darkness light to the upright ones: j He is merciful and compassionate and righteous.

5               f A good man showeth pity and lendeth; y He manageth his affairs  ff133 in uprightness.

6               k Truly he shall not for ever be moved; l In everlasting remembrance shall be the righteous one.

7               m Of evil tidings he shall not be afraid; n Established is his heart, because he trusteth in Jehovah.

8               s Sustained is his heart, he shall not be afraid, [ Until he see his desire upon his adversaries.

9               p He hath dispersed; he hath given to the poor ones; x His righteousness continueth for ever; q His horn shall be exalted with glory.

10             r The ungodly one shall see it, and be incensed; With his teeth he shall gnash and waste away: t The desire of the ungodly ones shall perish.



1               Praise ye, O ye servants of Jehovah! Praise ye the name of Jehovah.

2               Let the name of Jehovah be blessed, From henceforth and for ever.

3               From the rising of the sun even to his going down, Worthy to be praised is the name of Jehovah.

4               High above all nations is Jehovah, Above the heavens is his glory.

5               Who is like Jehovah our God,

6               Who hath his dwelling on high,  ff134 Who humbleth himself to behold that which is done in heaven and on earth?

7               Who raiseth from the dust the needy one; From the dunghill he lifteth up the wretched one;

8               To make him sit with princes, With the princes of his people.

9               Who causeth the barren woman to dwell with a family, Rejoicing that she is a mother of children. Hallelujah.


1               When Israel went forth from Egypt, The house of Jacob from a people barbarous;

2               [Then] was Judah for his holiness, Israel, his dominions.

3               The sea saw, and fled, Jordan was turned backward.

4               The mountains leaped as rams, The hills as the lambs of the flock.

5               What ailed thee, O sea! that thou fleddest? And thou, O Jordan! that thou wast turned back?

6               Ye mountains, that ye leaped like rams; Ye hills, as the lambs of the flock? 7, At the presence of the Lord, tremble, O earth! At the presence of the God of Jacob;

8               Who turned the rock into pools of water, The flinty rock into a fountain of waters.


1               Not to us, O Jehovah! not to us, But to thy name give glory, On account of thy mercy, on account of thy truth.

2               Why should the heathen say, “Where is now their God?”

3               But our God is in the heaven: Whatever pleased him he hath done.

4               Their idols are silver and gold, The work of the hands of men.

5               A mouth have they,  ff135 and they do not speak: Eyes have they, and they do not see:

6               Ears have they, and they do not hear: Noses have they, and they do not smell:

7               Hands have they, and they do not feel: Feet have they, and they do not walk: They do not speak through their throat.

8               Like to them shall be those who make them, And every one who trusteth in them.

9               O Israel! trust thou in Jehovah: Their help and their shield is He:

10             O house of Aaron! trust in Jehovah: Their help and their shield is he:

11             Ye who fear Jehovah! trust in Jehovah: Their help and their shield is He.

12             Jehovah hath remembered us; he will bless us; He will bless the house of Israel; He will bless the house of Aaron.

13             He will bless those who fear Jehovah, The small together with the great.

14             Jehovah will add to you, To you and to your children.

15             Blessed are ye of Jehovah, Who made heaven and earth.

16             The heavens, the heavens are Jehovah’s: But the earth he hath given to the sons of men.

17             The dead shall not praise thee, O God! Nor any who go down into silence.

18             But as for us we will bless God, From this time, and even for evermore. Hallelujah.


1               I have loved, because heard hath Jehovah the voice of my prayer;

2               Because he hath inclined his ear to me, When in my straits I called upon him. ff136

3               They encompassed me, the snares of death, And the sorrows of the grave found me: Trouble and grief I found.

4               And on the name of Jehovah I will call: “I beseech thee, O Jehovah! deliver my soul.”

5               Merciful is Jehovah and righteous; And our God is compassionate.

6               Guard doth Jehovah the simple: I was brought low and he saved me.

7               Return, O my soul! to thy rest; For Jehovah hath dealt kindly with thee. ff137

8               Because thou hast rescued my soul from death My eye from tears, My foot from falling.

9               I will walk before Jehovah in the land of the living.

10             I have believed, for I will speak: “I am afflicted greatly.”

11             I said in my fear, “Every man is a liar.”

12             What shall I render to Jehovah? All his benefits are upon me.

13             The cup of salvation I will take, And upon the name of Jehovah I will call.

14             My vows to, Jehovah I will perform Now in the presence of all his people.

15             Precious in the eyes of Jehovah is the death of his meek ones.

16             Come! O Jehovah! for I, am thy servant; I am thy servant, the son of thy handmaid; Thou hast broken my fetters.

17             To thee will I sacrifice the sacrifice of praise, And upon the name of Jehovah will I call.

18             My vows to Jehovah will I perform Now in the presence of all his people,

19             In the courts of the house of Jehovah In the midst of thee, O Jerusalem! Hallelujah.


1               Praise ye Jehovah, all ye nations! Celebrate him all ye peoples!

2               For great towards us is his mercy, And the truth of Jehovah continueth for ever. Hallelujah.


1               Celebrate ye Jehovah! for he is good: For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

2               Let now Israel say: “For  ff138 to everlasting endureth his mercy.”

3               Let now the house of Aaron say: “For to everlasting endureth his mercy.”

4               Let now those who fear Jehovah say: “For to everlasting endureth his mercy.”

5               In my distress I called upon God; God answered me by setting me at large.

6               Jehovah is with me: I will not fear what man can do to me.

7               Jehovah is with me among those who help me, And I shall see my desire upon my adversaries.

8               It is better to hope in Jehovah Than to place confidence in man:

9               It is better to hope in Jehovah Than to place confidence in princes.

10             All the nations encompassed me: But in the name of Jehovah I will surely cut them off.

11             They encompassed me, yea they encompassed me, But in the name of Jehovah I will surely cut them off’.

12             They encompassed me as bees: They were extinguished as a fire of thorns: In the name of Jehovah I will surely cut them off.

13             Thou hast thrust and  ff139 thrust at me, that I might fall: But Jehovah helped me.

14             My strength and my song is God, And he hath become to me salvation.

15             The voice of exultation and salvation is in the tabernacles of the righteous: The right hand of Jehovah hath done valiantly.

16             The right hand of Jehovah is exalted, The right hand of Jehovah hath done valiantly.

17             I shall not die, yea, I shall live, And recount the works of God.

18             Chastised me sorely hath  ff140 God; But he hath not delivered me up unto death.

19             Open to me the gates of righteousness; And having entered into them, I will celebrate God.

20             This is the gate of Jehovah, The just ones shall enter into it.

21             I will celebrate thee because thou hast heard me, And hast been my salvation.

22             The stone which the builders rejected Is become the head [stone] of the corner.

23             By Jehovah hath this been done: It is marvelous in our eyes.

24             This is the day which Jehovah hath made; Let us exult and rejoice in it.

25             I beseech thee, O Jehovah! save me; I beseech thee, I beseech thee, O Jehovah! give prosperity I beseech thee.

26             Blessed is he who cometh in the name of Jehovah: We bless you from the house of Jehovah.

27             God is Jehovah, and he hath given light to us: Bind ye the lamb with cords, even to the horns of the altar.

28             My God art thou, and I will celebrate thee: My God, I will exalt thee.

29             Celebrate ye Jehovah; for he is good: For to everlasting is his mercy.


a [Aleph.]

1               a Blessed are those who are upright in their way, Walking in the law of Jehovah.

2               a Blessed are those who keep his testimonies, Who with their whole heart seek him.

3               a, Surely they do not work iniquity, Who in his ways do walk.

4               a Thou hast commanded That thy statutes be kept carefully.

5               a O that my ways may be directed To the keeping of thy statutes!

6               a Then shall I not be ashamed, When I shall have been attentive to all thy commandments.

7               a I will celebrate thee with uprightness of heart, When I shall have learned the judgments of thy righteousness.

8               a, Thy statutes I will keep: Do not thou forsake me very far.

b [Beth.]

9               b By what [means] shall a young man cleanse his way? By taking heed according to thy word.

10             b With my whole heart have I sought thee; Let me not go astray from thy commandments.

11             b In my heart I have hidden thy word, That I might not sin against thee.

12             b Blessed art thou, O Jehovah! Teach me thy statutes.

13             b With my lips have I declared All the judgments of thy mouth.

14             b In the way of thy testimonies I have taken delight, As much as in all riches.

15             b Upon thy statutes will I meditate, And I will consider thy paths.

16             b In thy commandments will I delight myself; I will not forget thy words.

g [Gimel.]

17             g Do good to thy servant, And I shall live and keep thy word.

18             g Open mine eyes, And I shall behold the wonders of thy law.

19             g I am a stranger on the earth: Hide not from me thy commandments.

20             g Broken is my soul with the desire it hath To thy judgments at all times.

21             g Thou hast destroyed the proud ones; Cursed are those who decline from thy commandments.

22             g Remove from me reproach and contempt; For thy testimonies I have kept.

23             g Princes also have sat, against me they have spoken: Thy servant meditated upon thy statutes.

24             g Also thy testimonies are my delights, The men of my counsel.

d [Daleth.]

25             d Cleave to the dust doth my soul: Quicken me according to thy word.

26             d I have declared my ways, and thou hast answered me: Teach me thy statutes.

27             d The way of thy commandments make me to understand, And I will meditate upon thy wonders.

28             d Drop away doth my soul for grief: Raise me up according to thy word.

29             d The way of falsehood remove from me, And thy law grant me graciously.

30             d The way of truth I have chosen; Thy judgments I have set before me.

31             d I have cleaved to thy testimonies, O Jehovah Let me not be put to shame.

32             d The way of thy statutes I will run, When thou shalt have enlarged my heart.

h [He.]

33             h Teach me, O Jehovah! the way of thy statutes, And I will keep it unto the end.

34             h Make me to understand, and I will observe thy law, And keep it with my whole heart.

35             h Direct me in the way of thy statutes; For in it is my delight.

36             h Incline my heart to thy testimonies, And not to covetousness.

37             h Turn away my eyes from seeing vanity; In thy way quicken me.

38             h Confirm to thy servant thy word, Who to thy fear is devoted.

39             h Remove my reproach which I have dreaded, For thy judgments are good.

40             h Behold! I have longed after thy commandments: In thy righteousness quicken me.


41             w And let come to me thy mercies, O Jehovah! Thy salvation according to thy word.

42             w And I will answer a word to him who reproacheth me; For I have trusted in thy word.

43             w And take not from my mouth the word of truth utterly: Because for thy judgments I wait.

44             w And I will keep thy law continually, For ever and ever.

45             w And I will walk at large; For thy statutes I have sought.

46             w And I will speak of thy testimonies before kings, And will not be ashamed.

47             w And I will delight myself in thy commandments Which I have loved.

48             w And I will lift up my hands to thy commandments Which I have loved; And I will meditate upon thy statutes.

z [Zain.]

49             z Remember thy word to thy servant, Upon which thou hast caused me to hope.

50             z This is my consolation in my affliction; For thy word revives me.

51             z The proud ones have derided me exceedingly: From thy law I have not declined.

52             z I remembered thy judgments of old, O Jehovah! And comforted myself.

53             z Terror hath seized upon me, Because of the ungodly who forsake thy law.

54             z Thy statutes have been songs to me In the house of my pilgrimage.

55             z I remembered in the night thy name, O Jehovah! And I will keep thy law.

56             z This is done to me, Because thy statutes I have observed.

j [Cheth.]

57             j Thou art my portion, O Jehovah! I have said that I will keep thy words.  ff141

58             j I have sought thy face with my whole heart; Have mercy upon me according to thy word.

59             j I thought upon my ways, And turned my feet to thy testimonies.

60             j I made haste and delayed not To keep thy commandments.

61             j The cords of the ungodly have caught hold of me; Thy law I have not forgotten.

62             j At midnight I will rise to praise thee, Because of the judgments of thy righteousness.

63             j A companion am I to all who fear thee, And who keep thy statutes.

64             j Of thy mercy, O Jehovah! the earth is full: Thy statutes teach thou me.

t [Teth.]

65             t Kindly hast thou dealt with thy servant, O Jehovah! According to thy word.

66             t Goodness of taste and knowledge teach me; For thy commandments I have believed.

67             t Before I was brought low I went astray; But now thy word I keep.

68             t Good art thou, and beneficent: Teach me thy statutes.

69             t Weaved a lie  ff142 against me have the proud ones; But as for me I with my whole heart will keep statutes.

70             t Fat as grease is their heart; But as for me I in thy law do delight.

71             t It hath been good for me that I have been afflicted, That I might learn thy statutes.

72             t Better to me is the law of thy mouth Than thousands of gold and silver.

y [Yod.]

73             y Thy hands have made and formed me; Make me to understand, and I shall learn thy commandments.

74             y Those who fear thee shall see me and rejoice; Because for thy word I have waited.

75             y I have known, O Jehovah! that righteousness are thy judgments; And in truth thou hast humbled me.

76             y To thy word to thy servant.

77             y Let come to me thy compassions, and I shall live; For thy law is my delight.

78             y Ashamed let be the proud, for they have falsely wronged me: As for me I will meditate upon thy precepts.

79             y Let those turn unto me who fear thee, And have known thy testimonies.

80             y Let my heart be sound in thy statutes, That I may not be put to shame.

k [Caph.]

81             k Fainted for thy salvation hath my soul: For thy word I wait.

82             k Failed have my eyes [in looking] for thy word, While I say, “When wilt thou comfort me?”

83             k For I have been as a bottle in the smoke; And yet thy statutes I have not forgotten.

84             k How many are the days of thy servant? When wilt thou execute judgment on my persecutors?

85             k The proud have digged pits for me, Which is not according to thy law.

86             k All thy commandments are truth: Deceitfully do they persecute me; therefore help thou me.

87             k Almost have they consumed me upon the earth; Yet I have not forsaken thy statutes.

88             k According to thy goodness quicken me; And I will keep the testimony of thy mouth.

l [Lamed.]

89             l For ever, O Jehovah! Thy word endureth in the heavens.

90             l From generation to generation is thy truth: Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth.

91             l By thy judgments they continue to this day; For all are thy servants.

92             l Unless thy law had been my delight, Then should I have perished in my affliction.

93             l Never will I forget thy statutes, For in them thou hast quickened me.

94             l Thine I am; O save me! For thy statutes I have sought.

95             l For me wait do the ungodly to destroy me: But I consider thy testimonies.

96             l In all perfection I have seen an end: Broad is thy commandment exceedingly.

m [Mem.]

97             m O how have I loved thy law! All the day it is my meditation.

98             m Than my adversaries thou hast made me wiser by thy commandments; Because for ever they are with me.

99             m Than all my teachers thou hast made me wiser; Because thy testimonies are my meditation.

100           m Than the aged I have more understanding; Because thy statutes I have observed.

101           m From every evil path I have restrained my feet, That I may keep thy word.

102           m From thy judgments I have not declined; For thou thyself hast taught me.

103           m How sweet to my palate have been thy words! More [sweet] than honey to my mouth!

104           m By thy statutes I have gotten understanding; Therefore I have hated every path of falsehood.

n [Nun.]

105           n A lamp to my feet is thy word, And a light to my path.

106           n I have sworn and will make sure, To observe the judgments of thy righteousness.

107           n I am afflicted exceedingly, O Jehovah! Quicken me according to thy word.

108           n I Let the freewill offerings of my mouth, I pray thee, be pleasing to thee, O Jehovah! And thy judgments teach me.

109           n My soul is in my hand continually; And thy law I have not forgotten.

110           n Laid have the ungodly a snare for me: Yet from thy statutes I have not erred.

111           n I have as [my] inheritance thy testimonies for ever; For the joy of my heart are they.

112           n I have inclined my heart to perform thy statutes For ever, and even to the end.

s [Samech.]

113           s Crooked thoughts I have hated; But thy law I have loved.

114           s My hiding-place and my shield art thou: In thy word I have trusted.

115           s Depart from me, ye wicked men! And I will keep the commandments of my God.

116           s Sustain me by thy word, and I shall live: And make me not ashamed of my expectation.

117           s Establish me, and I shall be safe, And I will consider thy statutes continually.

118           s Thou hast trodden down all who go astray from thy statutes; For falsehood is their deceit.

119           s As dross thou hast made to cease all the ungodly of the earth; Therefore I have loved thy testimonies.

120           s Tremble  ff143 for fear of thee did my flesh, And of thy judgments I was afraid.

[ [Ain.]

121           [ I have done judgment and righteousness: Give me not up to my oppressors.

122           [ Become surety for thy servant for good, That the proud may not oppress me.

123           [ My eyes have failed for thy salvation, And for the word of thy righteousness.

124           [ Deal with thy servant according to thy goodness, And thy statutes teach thou me.

125           [ Thy servant am I, give me understanding, That I may learn thy testimonies.

126           [ It is time [for thee] to work, O Jehovah! For they have destroyed thy law.

127           [ Therefore I have loved thy statutes Mere than gold and fine gold.

128           [ Therefore all thy commandments I have esteemed to be altogether right: Every way of falsehood I have hated:

p [Phe.]

129           p Marvelous things are thy testimonies; Therefore observed them hath my soul.

130           p The entrance of thy words is light, Giving understanding to the little ones.

131           p My mouth I opened and panted, Because thy commandments I loved.

132           p Look upon me and have pity upon me, According to thy judgment towards those who love thy name.

133           p My steps direct thou according to thy word, And let not any iniquity have dominion in me.

134           p Redeem me from the oppression of men, And I will keep thy precepts.

135           p Thy face cause thou to shine upon thy servant, And teach me thy statutes.

136           p Rivers of waters run from my eyes, Because they have not kept thy law.

x [Tsadde.]

137           x Righteous art thou, O Jehovah! And right are thy judgments.

138           x Thou hast commanded righteousness in thy testimonies, And truth exceedingly.

139           x Consumed me hath my zeal, Because forgotten thy words have my adversaries.

140           x Refined is thy word exceedingly: And thy servant hath loved it.

141           x Small am I, and despised; [Yet] thy precepts I have not forgotten.

142           x Thy righteousness is righteousness for ever, And thy law is truth.

143           x Trouble and anguish have come upon me; But thy commandments have been my delights.

144           x The righteousness of thy testimonies endureth for ever; Make me to understand, and I shall live.

q [Koph.]

145           q I have cried with my whole heart; Answer me, O Jehovah! And thy statutes I will keep.

146           q I have called upon thee, save me, And I will keep thy testimonies.

147           q I have prevented the dawn of the morning, ff144 and have cried: To thy word I have looked up.

148           q Prevented have my eyes the watches of the night, To meditate upon thy word.

149           q My voice hear thou, according to thy mercy, O Jehovah According to thy judgment quicken me.

150           q Drawn near have the pursuers of malice; From thy law they have departed.

151           q Near art thou, O Jehovah! And all thy commandments are truth.

152           q From the beginning I have known from thy testimonies, That for ever thou hast founded them.

r [Resh.]

153           r Behold my affliction, and rescue me; For thy law I have not forgotten.

154           r Debate my cause, and redeem me; According to thy word quicken me.

155           r Far from the ungodly is safety; Because thy statutes they have not sought.

156           r Thy compassions are great, O Jehovah! According to thy judgments quicken me.

157           r Many are my persecutors and my oppressors: From thy testimonies I have not declined.

158           r I saw the perfidious, and chid them; Because thy word they have not kept.

159           r Behold how thy commandments I have loved: According to thy clemency quicken me.

160           r The beginning of thy word is truth; And to everlasting is all the judgment of thy righteousness.


161           Princes have persecuted me without a cause Yet at thy word afraid hath been my heart.

162           Joyful am I over thy word, As he who hath found much spoil.

163           Deceit I have hated and abhorred; Thy law I have loved.

164           Seven times a day have I praised thee, Because of the judgments of thy righteousness.

165           Much peace have those who love thy law, And they have no stumbling-block.

166           I have waited for thy salvation, O Jehovah! And thy commandments I have done.

167           Kept hath my soul thy testimonies, And I have loved them exceedingly.

168           I have kept thy commandments and thy testimonies; For all my ways are before thee.

t [Thau.]

169           t Come let my cry into thy presence, O Jehovah! According to thy word give me understanding.

170           t Come let my prayer into thy presence: According to thy word deliver me.

171           t Speak shall my lips praise, When thou shalt have taught me thy statutes.

172           t Speak shall my tongue of thy word; For all thy precepts are righteousness.

173           t Let thy hand be to succor me; For thy commandments I have chosen.

174           t I have longed for thy salvation, O Jehovah! And thy law hath been my delights.

175           t Live let my soul, and let it praise thee; And let thy judgments succor me.

176           t I have wandered like a lost sheep; Seek thy servant, for thy statutes I have not forgotten.


A Song of Degrees

1               To Jehovah in my distress I cried, And he answered me.

2               O Jehovah! deliver my soul from the lip of falsehood, From the tongue of deceit.

3               What give thee, and what avail thee Shall the tongue of deceit?

4               The arrows of a strong man sharpened, With coals of junipers.

5               Alas for me! that I have been a sojourner in Meseeh, And have dwelt among the tents of Kedar.

6               Long dwelt hath my soul with him who hateth peace.

7               I [am for] peace; But when I speak, they [are] for war.


A Song of Degrees

1               I will lift up my eyes to the mountains, Whence come shall my help.

2               My help cometh from Jehovah, Who made heaven and earth.

3               He will not suffer thy foot to stumble; Slumber not shall thy guardian.

4               Behold! slumber not nor sleep Shall the guardian of Israel.

5               Jehovah is thy guardian; Jehovah is thy defense on thy right hand.

6               By day the sun shall not smite thee, Nor the moon by night.

7               Jehovah shall keep thee from all evil; He shall keep thy soul.

8               Jehovah shall keep thy going out and thy coming in, From this time, and for ever.


A Song of Degrees Of David

1               I was glad when they said to me, “Into the house of Jehovah we will go.

2               “Our feet shall be standing in thy gates, O Jerusalem!”

3               Jerusalem built as a city, compact in itself together.

4               Thither ascended the tribes, the tribes of God, For a testimony to Israel, To celebrate the name of Jehovah.

5               For there have sat  ff145 thrones for judgment, The thrones of the house of David.

6               Pray ye for the peace of Jerusalem: Prosper may those who love thee!

7               Peace be within thy bulwark! Prosperity within thy towers!

8               For the sake of my brethren and my neighbors, I will say now, “Peace [be] within thee! “

9               For the sake of the house of Jehovah our God, I will seek good for thee.


A Song of Degrees

1               To thee will I lift up mine eyes, [O thou] who dwellest in the heavens!

2               Behold! as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their masters; As the eyes of a handmaid look to the hand of her mistress, So our eyes [look] to Jehovah our God, Until he have mercy upon us.

3               Have mercy upon us, O Jehovah! have mercy upon us; For we are exceedingly filled with reproach.

4               Exceedingly filled in itself is our soul With the mockery of the rich, With the contempt of the proud.


A Song of Degrees. Of David

1               “But for Jehovah who was on our side” — Say now may Israel:

2               “But for Jehovah who was on our side, “When men rose up against us;

3               “Then alive had they swallowed us up, “When kindled was their wrath against us;

4               “Then the waters had overwhelmed us, “The torrent had gone over our soul:

5               “Then had gone over our soul the proud waters.”

6               Blessed be Jehovah, Who gave us not for a prey to their teeth.

7               Our soul as a bird, hath been rescued  ff146 from the snare of the fowlers; The snare hath been broken, and we have been delivered.

8               Our help is in the name of Jehovah, Who made heaven and earth.


A Song of Degrees

1               They who confide in Jehovah are as mount Zion, Which shall not be removed, but shall abide for ever.

2               As the mountains are about Jerusalem, So Jehovah is round about his people, From henceforth, and for ever.

3               For rest not shall the scepter of the ungodly ones upon the lot of the just, Lest the just ones should put forth to iniquity their hands.

4               Do good, O Jehovah! to the good, And to those who are upright in their hearts.

5               But those who turn aside into their crooked paths, Jehovah shall make them walk with the workers of iniquity: But there shall be peace upon Israel.


A Song of Degrees

1               When bring back did Jehovah the captivity of Zion, We were like those that dream.

2               Now filled with laughter shall be our mouth, And our tongue with exultation: Now shall they say among the heathen, “Great things Jehovah hath done for them.”

3               Great things Jehovah hath done for us, Whereof we have been made glad.

4               Bring back, O Jehovah! our captivity, As rivers in the South.

5               They who sow in tears In exultation shall reap.

6               Going forth, he shall go and weep, Carrying the price of the seed: Returning he shall return with exultation, Bearing his sheaves.


A Song of Degrees. Of Solomon

1               Except Jehovah build the house, In vain they labor that build it; Except Jehovah keep the city, In vain watcheth the watchman.

2               Vain is it for you early to hasten to rise, To go late to rest, To eat the bread of sorrows: For thus will he give to his beloved one sleep.

3               Lo! the heritage of Jehovah are children: The reward which he bestows is the fruit of the womb.

4               As arrows in the hand of a strong man, So are the sons of youth.

5               Blessed is the man who shall have filled his quiver with them; For they shall not be ashamed when they speak with their enemies in the gate.


A Song of Degrees

1               Blessed is the man who feareth Jehovah, Who walketh in his ways.

2               The labor of thy hands when thou shalt eat thou shalt be blessed, And it shall be well with thee.

3               Thy wife shall be as a vine fruitful on the sides of thy house: Thy children as plants of olives around thy table.

4               Lo! surely, thus blessed shall be the man who feareth Jehovah.

5               Bless thee shall Jehovah from Zion; And thou shalt see the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life.

6               And thou shalt see thy children’s children, And peace upon Israel.


A Song of Degrees

1               “Often have they afflicted me from my youths” Say now let Israel:

2               “Often have they afflicted me from my youth; “Yet they have not prevailed against me.

3               “Upon my back ploughed have the ploughers; “They have made long their furrows.

4               “Jehovah, who is righteous, hath cut asunder the cords of the wicked.”

5               Confounded and turned backward shall be all who hate Zion.

6               They shall be as the grass of the housetops, Which before it cometh forth is withered:

7               With which the mower hath not filled his hand, Nor his bosom he who gathereth handfuls.

8               Nor have they said who pass by, “The blessing of Jehovah be upon you, “We bless you in the name of Jehovah.”


A Song of Degrees

1               Out of the depths have I cried to thee, O Jehovah!

2               O Lord! hear my voice; Let thy ears be attentive to the voice of my prayers.

3               If iniquities thou shouldest mark, O God! O Lord! who shall stand?

4               For with thee is forgiveness that thou mayest be feared.

5               I have waited for Jehovah, waited hath my soul; And in his word have I hoped.

6               My soul [hath waited] for the Lord Before the watchers of the morning, the watchers of the morning.

7               But  ff147 hope let Israel in Jehovah; For with Jehovah there is mercy, And with him there is plenteous redemption.

8               And he shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities.


A Song of Degrees. Of David

1               O Jehovah! my heart hath not been elated, Nor lifted up have been my eyes, Nor have I exercised myself in great matters, Or in things hidden from me.

2               If I have not framed [or set] and quieted my soul, Like one that is weaned from his mother, —  ff148 Like a child that is weaned is my soul upon me.

3               Hope shall Israel in Jehovah From henceforth, and for ever.


A Song of Degrees

1               Remember, O Jehovah! David With all his affliction:

2               Who sware to Jehovah, [Who] vowed to the Mighty One of Jacob:

3               “If I shall enter into the tabernacle of my house, “If I shall go up upon the covering of my bed,

4               “If I give sleep to my eyes, “To my eyelids slumber,

5               “Until I find a place for Jehovah, “Habitations for the mighty God of Jacob,” —  ff149

6               Lo! we heard of it at Ephratha; We found it in the fields of the wood.

7               We will enter into his habitations, We will worship at his footstool.

8               Arise, O Jehovah! into thy rest, Thou and the ark of thy strength.

9               Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness, And let thy meek ones exult.

10             For the sake of David thy servant Turn not away the face of thy Christ.

11             Sworn hath Jehovah to David in truth, Nor will he turn from it: “Of the fruit of thy belly will I set upon thy throne.

12             “If thy children shall keep my covenant, “And my testimonies, which I will teach them; “Also their children for ever shall sit upon thy throne.”

13             For chosen hath Jehovah Zion; He hath desired her for a habitation to himself.

14             “This is my rest for ever; “Here will I dwell, because I have loved her.

15             “Her provision blessing I will bless; “Her poor I will satisfy with bread; .

16             “And her priests I will clothe with salvation; “And her merciful ones with exultation shall exult.

17             “There will I make to bud the horn of David: “I have prepared a lamp for my Christ.

18             “His enemies will I clothe with shame, “And upon him flourish shall his crown.”


A Song of Degrees. Of David

1               Behold! how good, and how becoming, That brethren should even dwell together!

2               Like the precious oil upon the head, Which descendeth  ff150 upon the beard, the beard of Aaron, Which descendeth upon the skirt of his garments.

3               Like the dew of Hermon, Which descendeth upon the mountains of Zion: For there commanded hath Jehovah the blessing, Life for evermore.


A Song of Degrees

1               Behold! bless ye Jehovah, All ye servants of Jehovah! Who stand in the house of Jehovah nightly.

2               Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, And bless ye Jehovah.

3               May Jehovah bless thee out of Zion, [Even he] who hath made heaven and earth.



1               Praise ye the name of Jehovah; Praise [it] O ye servants of Jehovah!

2               Who stand in the house of Jehovah, [And ye who stand] in the courts of the house of our God.

3               Praise God; for good is Jehovah: Sing to his name; for it is pleasant:

4               For God hath chosen Jacob to himself, Israel for his own possession.

5               For I know that great is Jehovah, And that our God is above all gods.

6               All things which Jehovah pleaseth, lie doeth in the heavens and on the earth, In the sea and in all the deeps.

7               Causing the clouds to ascend from the end of the earth: The lightnings for the rain he maketh, Bringing forth the wind out of his secret places.

8               He smote the first born of Egypt, From man even unto beast.

9               He sent signs and wonders in the midst of thee, O Egypt! On Pharaoh and on all his servants.

10             He smote great nations, And slew mighty kings.

11             Sihon, king of the Amorites, And Og the king of Basham, And all the kingdoms of Canaan.

12             And gave their land for an heritage, An heritage to Israel, his people.

13             O Jehovah! thy name is for ever; O Jehovah! thy memorial is from generation to generation.

14             For judge will Jehovah his people, And concerning his servants he will repent himself.

15             The images of the nations are silver and gold, The work of the hands of man.

16             A mouth have they, and they will not speak;  ff151 Eyes have they, and they will not see.

17             Ears have they, and they will not hear: Also, there is no breath in their mouth.

18             Like unto them are those who make them, And every one who trusteth in them.

19             O house of Israel! bless ye Jehovah; O house of Aaron! bless ye Jehovah;

20             O house of Levi! bless ye Jehovah; O ye who fear Jehovah! bless ye Jehovah.

21             Blessed be Jehovah out of Zion, Who dwelleth at Jerusalem. Hallelujah.


1               Praise Jehovah, for he is good,  For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

2               Praise the God of gods, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

3               Praise the Lord of lords, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

4               Who hath done wonders great alone, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

5               Who hath made the heavens in wisdom, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

6               Who hath stretched out the earth above the waters, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

7               Who hath made the great lights, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

8               The sun for rule by day, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

9               The moon and stars for rule by night, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

10             Who smote the Egyptians in their first born, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

11             And brought out Israel from the midst of them, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

12             With a hand of strength and an arm stretched out, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

13             Who divided the Red Sea into divisions, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

14             And made Israel to pass through the midst of it, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

15             And cast Pharaoh and his host headlong into the Red Sea, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

16             And led his people through the wilderness, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

17             Who smote great kings, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

18             And slew renowned kings, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

19             Sihon, king of the Arnorites, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

20             And Og, the king of Bashan, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

21             And gave their land for an heritage, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

22             An heritage to Israel his servant, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

23             Who in our humiliation remembered us, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

24             And rescued us from our oppressors, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

25             Who giveth food to all flesh, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.

26             Make acknowledgments to the God of heavens, For to everlasting endureth his mercy.


1               By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, Yea we wept when we remembered thee, O Zion!

2               Upon the willows, in the midst thereof, We hanged our harps.

3               Then they required of us, they who carried us away captive, the words of a song, And, when we were in suspense, mirth, [Saying] Sing us one of the songs of Zion.”

4               How shall we sing the song of Jehovah, In a strange land?

5               If I shall forget thee, O Jerusalem! Forget let my right hand [its cunning.]

6               Cleave let my tongue to my palate, If I do not remember thee, If I do not raise Jerusalem above my highest joy. ff152

7               Remember, O Jehovah! the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem: ‘Who said, “Lay it bare — “Lay it bare, even to the foundations thereof.”

8               O daughter of Babylon laid waste! Happy he who shall repay thee The retribution with which thou hast retributed us!

9               Happy he who shall take And dash thy little ones against the stones.


Of David

1               I will celebrate thee with my whole heart; Before the gods! will sing psalms to thee.

2               I will worship thee towards the temple of thy holiness, And sing to thy name for thy mercy and for thy truth; For thou hast magnified above all things thy name by thy word.

3               In the day when, I cried to thee, then thou heardest me, Thou didst abundantly minister to me strength in my soul.

4               Celebrate thee, O Jehovah! let all the kings of the earth; For they have heard the words of thy mouth.

5               And let them sing in the ways of Jehovah, For great is the glory of Jehovah.

6               For high is Jehovah; yet the lowly he will regard; And being high will know afar off:

7               If I shall walk in the midst of trouble, thou wilt revive me; Against the wrath of my enemies thou wilt put forth thy hand, And save me shall thy right hand.

8               Jehovah will perform in me his work, O Jehovah! thy mercy is from everlasting; The works of thy hands thou wilt not forsake.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               O Jehovah! thou hast searched me and known me.

2               Thou hast known my down sitting and my uprising, Thou understandest my thought afar off.

3               My path and my lying down thou besiegest, And with all my ways thou art acquainted.

4               For there is not a word in my tongue [But] lo! O God! thou knowest it altogether.

5               Behind and before thou hast shut me up, And hast laid upon me thy hand.

6               Wonderful is thy knowledge above me; It is high, I cannot attain to it.

7               Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? And whither from thy time shall I flee?

8               If I ascend up into the heavens, there thou art; If I lie down  ff153 in the sepulcher, behold! thou [art there.]

9               Should I take the wings of the morning, That I may dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea,

10             Even there thy hand shall lead me, And hold me shall thy right hand.

11             If I should say: “At least the darkness shall cover me; “And the night shall be light for me; “

12             Even the darkness shall not hide from the And the night as the day shall shine, And the darkness as the light.

13             For thou hast possessed my reins; Thou hast covered me in the womb of my mother.

14             I will celebrate thee; for I have been fearfully and wonderfully made:  ff154 Marvelous are thy works, And my soul shall know them full well.

15             Not hidden is my strength from thee, Which thou hast made in secret: I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth.

16             My shapelessness see did thine eyes; ff155 In thy book all shall be written; They were formed in many days, And there was not one of them.

17             And towards me how precious are thy thoughts, O God! How great are the sums of them!

18             If I should count them; above the sand they shall be multiplied: I am awakened, and still I am with thee.

19             If thou shalt slay, O God! the wicked, Then ye men of bloods depart from me.

20             Who have spoken of thee wickedly: Taken thy name falsely have thy adversaries.

21             Thy haters, O Jehovah! shall not I hate? And with those that rise up against thee shall I not strive?

22             With perfect hatred I have hated them, As my enemies I have held them.

23             Search me, O God! and know my heart: Examine me and know my thoughts.

24             And know whether the way of wickedness be in me, And lead me in the way of this life.


To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David

1               Deliver me, O Jehovah! from the evil man: From the man of injuries do thou preserve me.

2               Who devise mischiefs in their heart; Daily do they congregate for wars.

3               Sharpened have they their tongue like a serpent: The poison of an asp is under their lips. Selah.

4               Keep me, O Jehovah! from the hands of the ungodly: From the man of injuries preserve me; Who plot to overthrow my goings.

5               Laid have the proud a snare for me: And with cords they have spread a net: By the wayside traps have they set for me. Selah.

6               I said, O Jehovah! my God are thou: Listen, O Jehovah! to the voice of my supplication.

7               O Jehovah, my Lord! the strength of my salvation, Thou hast put a covering on my head in the day of arms.

8               Grant not, O Jehovah! the desires of the ungodly man: They have devised, consummate thou not, they shall be exalted. Selah.

9               [As for] the head of those who encompass me, Let the mischief of his lips cover him.

10             Fall upon them let coals with fire: He shall cast them into deep pits, They shall not rise again.

11             The man of tongue shall not be established in the earth: The man of violence, evil shall hunt him to banishments.

12             I have known that accomplish will Jehovah the judgment of the poor one, The judgment of the afflicted one.

13             Surely the righteous ones will celebrate thy name, Dwell shall the upright ones before thy face.


A Psalm of David

1               O Jehovah! I have cried to thee: Haste thou to me: Listen to my voice when I cry to thee.

2               Directed let my prayer be as incense before thy face: [Let] the lifting up of my hands [be] as the sacrifice of the evening.

3               Set, O Jehovah! a watch to my mouth; Keep a guard upon the door of my lips.

4               Incline not my heart to an evil thing, To commit works of ungodliness with the men who work iniquity; And let me not eat of their dainties.

5               Smite me let the righteous man, [it shall be] a kindness; And let him chastise me, [it shall be] an oil that is precious, It shall not break my head: For yet also my prayer shall be in their calamities.

6               Cast down on stony places have been their judges: And they shall hear my words, for they are sweet.

7               As he who breaketh and cutteth on the earth, Scattered have been our bones at the mouth of the grave.

8               Because to thee, O Jehovah! my Lord! are my eyes, In thee I have hoped: do not leave destitute my soul.

9               Keep me from the hands of the snare which they have spread for me. From the nets of those who work iniquity.

10             Fall into his nets let the ungodly ones together, Until I escape.


Maschil of David, when he was in the cave. A Prayer

1               With my voice to, Jehovah I cried; With my voice to. Jehovah I made supplication.

2               I poured out before his face my meditation; My affliction before his face I declare.

3               When perplexed within me was my spirit, And thou knewest my path: In the way wherein I walked, they laid a snare for me.

4               On looking to the right hand, and beholding, None there was who would know me, Perish did refuge from me, [There was] no man seeking after my soul.

5               I cried to thee, O Jehovah! I said, Thou art my hope, My portion in the land of the living.

6               Attend to my cry, For under affliction I labor exceedingly: Deliver me from my persecutors, For they are too strong for me.

7               Rescue from prison my soul, That I may celebrate thy name: Crown me shall the righteous ones, For thou shalt recompense me.


A Psalm of David

1               O Jehovah! hear my prayer; Give ear to my supplication; In thy truth answer me, in thy righteousness.

2               And enter not into judgment with thy servant, For there shall not be justified in thy sight any living man.

3               For persecuted hath the enemy my soul; He hath prostrated on the earth my life; He hath set me in dark places, as the dead of an age.

4               And perplexed within me is my spirit Within me astonished is my heart.

5               I remembered the days of old, I meditated on all thy doings; Upon the work of thy hands I meditated.

6               I spread out my hearts to thee; My soul, as the earth without water, is to thee. Selah.

7               Hasten, answer me, O Jehovah! Fail doth my spirit: Hide not thy face from me, Because I shall be like to those who descend into the pit.

8               Cause me to hear in the morning thy mercy, For in thee have I hoped: Show me the way in which I may walk, For to thee have I lifted up my soul.

9               Deliver me from my enemies, O Jehovah! With thee have I hidden [myself.]

10             Teach me to do thy will, For thou art my God: Let thy good Spirit lead me into the right land.

11             Because of thy name, O Jehovah I thou wilt quicken me: In thy righteousness bring out of trouble my soul.

12             And in thy mercy thou wilt scatter my enemies, And wilt destroy all those who afflict my soul; Because I am thy servant.


Of David

1               Blessed be Jehovah, my strength, Who teacheth my hands for the fight, My fingers for the battle.

2               My goodness, and my fortress, My citadel, my deliverer for me, My shield, and in him I have hoped, Who subdueth my people under me.

3               O Jehovah! what is man that thou acknowledgest him? The son of man that thou thinkest of him?

4               Man to vanity is like, His days [are] as a shadow that is passing.

5               O Jehovah! bow thy heavens and descend: Touch the mountains and they shall smoke.

6               Thunder forth thunderings and scatter them; Shoot out thy arrows, and destroy them.

7               Send thy hand from on high; Rescue me and deliver me from waters great, From the hand of the sons of the alien.

8               For their mouth hath spoken falsehood, And their right hand is a right hand of deceit.

9               O God! a song that is new I will sing to thee: Upon the nablum, upon the psaltery I will sing psalms to thee

10             Who givest salvation to kings, Who redeemest David his servant from the hurtful sword.

11             Redeem me, and rescue me, From the hand of the sons of the alien, Whose mouth hath spoken falsehood, And their right hand is a right hand of deceit.

12             Because our sons are as plants Which have grown up in their youth; Our daughters as corners polished After the similitude of a palace.

13             Our recesses full, Supplying all kinds of good things. Our sheep bringing forth thousands, [Yea] ten thousands in our streets.

14             Our oxen to the burden accustomed; No breach, nor going out, Nor cry in our streets.

15             Happy the people to whom it is so, To whom Jehovah is their God.


Praise of David

1               I will exalt thee, my God, my King! And will bless thy name for ever and ever.

2               Every day will I bless thee, And praise thy name for ever and ever.

3               Great is Jehovah, and to be praised greatly, And his greatness is incomprehensible.

4               Generation to generation shall praise thy works, And thy power they shall declare.

5               Upon the majesty of the glory of thy excellence, And upon the words of thy wonders, I will meditate.

6               And the might of thy terrible works shall they recount; And thy greatness I will declare.

7               The memory of the greatness of thy goodness they shall speak forth; And of thy righteousness they shall sing.

8               Gracious and compassionate is Jehovah, Slow to anger and great in clemency.

9               Good is Jehovah to all, And his compassions are over all his works.

10             Celebrate thee, O Jehovah! shall all thy works, And thy meek ones shall bless thee.

11             Of the glory of thy kingdom they shall tell, And of thy power they shall speak:

12             To make known to the sons of men his mighty acts, And the glory of the beauty of his kingdom.

13             Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all ages, And thy dominion is throughout generations of generations.

14             Uphold doth Jehovah all the falling, He raiseth up all who are bowed down.

15             The eyes of all in thee do hope, And thou givest them their food in its season.

16             Thou openest thy hand And satisfiest every living creature by thy good pleasure.

17             Righteous is Jehovah in all his ways, And merciful in all his works.

18             Near is Jehovah to all who call upon him, To all who call upon him in truth.

19             The desire of those who fear him he will perform, And their cry he will hear, told he will save then,.

20             Keep doth Jehovah all who love him, And all the wicked he will destroy.

21             The praise of Jehovah speak shall my mouth: And bless shall all flesh his holy name for ever and ever.



1               Praise, O my soul! Jehovah.

2               I will praise Jehovah in my life; I will sing psalms to my God, while I have being.

3               Confide not in princes, Nor in the son of man, in whom there is not help.

4               Go forth shall his breath, He shall return to his earth, In that day perish shall his thoughts.

5               Blessed is he who hath for his help the God of Jacob; Whose hope is in Jehovah, his God:

6               Who made heaven and earth, The sea, and all that is in them: Who keepeth truth for ever:

7               Who doeth judgment for those who are unrighteously oppressed: Who giveth bread to the hungry: Jehovah looseth the prisoners;

8               Jehovah enlighteneth the blind; Jehovah raiseth up those who are bowed down; Jehovah loveth the righteous;

9               Jehovah keepeth the strangers; The orphan and the widow he succoureth; And the way of the ungodly he will destroy.

10             Reign shall Jehovah for ever: Thy God, O Zion, is from generation to generation. Hallelujah.


1               Praise ye God; For it is a good thing to sing psalms to our God, For it is pleasant, comely is praise.

2               Build up Jerusalem doth Jehovah, The dispersed of Israel he will gather.

3               He healeth the contrite in heart; He bindeth their sorrows. ff156

4               He counteth the multitude of the stars: To each of them names doth he give.

5               Great is our Lord, and abundant in power, His understanding is infinite.

6               Raise up the afflicted ones doth Jehovah, He casteth down the ungodly ones to the ground.

7               Sing to Jehovah in praise, Sing psalms to our God upon the harp.

8               Who covereth the heavens with clouds, Who prepareth for the earth rain, Who maketh to spring up grass upon the mountains,

9               Who giveth to the cattle their food, To the young ones  ff157 of the ravens which cry to him.

10             Nor in the strength of the horse will he take pleasure, Nor in the legs of man will he delight.

11             Delight doth Jehovah in those who fear him, [In those] who hope in his mercy.

12             Celebrate, O Jerusalem! Jehovah; Praise thy God, O Zion!

13             For he strengtheneth the bars of thy gates; He blesseth thy children in the midst of thee.

14             Who maketh in thy borders peace; With the fatness of wheat he satisfieth thee.

15             When he sendeth forth his word upon the earth, Very swiftly run doth his word.

16             Who giveth snow white as wool; The hoarfrost as ashes he scattereth.

17             He casteth forth his ice as morsels: Before his cold who shall stand?

18             He shall send his word: red shall melt them: Blow shall his breath, and flow shall the waters.

19             He announceth his words to Jacob, his statutes and his judgments to Israel.

20             He hath not done so to every nation, And his judgments he hath not made known to them. Hallelujah.



1               Praise ye Jehovah from the heavens; Praise him in the heights.

2               Praise him, all ye his angels! Praise him, all ye his armies!

3               Praise him, ye Sun and Moon! Praise him, all ye shining stars!

4               Praise him, ye heavens of heavens! And ye waters above the heavens!

5               Let them praise the name of Jehovah; For he commanded and they were created:

6               And he established them for ever: For ever he hath set for them a decree, and it shall not pass beyond.

7               Praise Jehovah, ye creatures from the earth! Dragons, and all deeps!

8               Fire and hail, snow and ice! Wind of storm, executing his word!

9               Mountains, and all hills! The tree bearing fruit, and all cedars!

10             Wild beasts, and all cattle! Reptile, and winged birds!

11             Kings of the earth, and all peoples! Princes, and all judges of the earth!

12             Young men, and also maidens! Old men with children!

13             Let them praise the name of Jehovah; For high is his name alone; His praise is above the earth and heavens.

14             And he hath exalted the horn of his people: Praise is to all his merciful ones, To the children of Israel, A people which is near to him. Hallelujah.



1               Sing ye to Jehovah a song that is new: His praise is in the assembly of the merciful ones.

2               Rejoice let Israel in his Maker; Let the children of Zion exult in their king:

3               Let them praise his name on the pipe: On the timbrel and the harp let them sing psalms to him.

4               For taken pleasure hath Jehovah in his people: He will glorify the poor ones unto salvation.

5               Exult let the merciful ones in glory; Let them shout with joy on their couches.

6               The exaltations of God are in their mouth, And a sword of two edges in their hand;

7               To execute vengeance on the heathen, Chastisements on the nations:

8               To bind their kings with chains, And their nobles with fetters of iron:

9               To execute upon them the judgment written. This honor is to all his merciful ones. Hallelujah.



1               Praise God in his sanctuary; Praise him in the firmament of his power.

2               Praise him in his might; Praise him for the multitude of his greatness:

3               Praise him with sound of trumpet; Praise him with nablum and harp.

4               Praise him with timbrel and pipe; Praise him with strings and organ.

5               Praise him with cymbals of sound; Praise him with cymbals of shouting.

6               Let every thing that breatheth praise God. Hallelujah.













Quoted in



Quoted in


1, 2

<440425>Acts 4:25, 26



<430217>John 2:17



<441333>Acts 13:33



<451109>Romans 11: 9, 10



<66027>Revelations 2:27



<440120>Acts 1:20



<450313>Romans 3:13



<401335>Matthew 13:35



<402116>Matthew 21:16



<430631>John 6:31



<580206>Hebrews 2:6



<431034>John 10:34



<461509>1 Corinthians 15:9



<441322>Acts 13:22



<450314>Romans 3:14



<402244>Matthew 22:44



<450310>Romans 3:10


11, 12

<400406>Matthew 4:6



<440225>Acts 2:25



<460320>1 Corinthians 3:20



<151509>Romans 15:9



<580307>Hebrews 3:7



<451018>Romans 10:18



<580106>Hebrews 1:6



<402746>Matthew 27:46



<402142>Matthew 21:42



<402735>Matthew 27:35



<580110>Hebrews 1:10



<431924>John 19:24



<580107>Hebrews 1:7



<580212>Hebrews 2:12



<431525>John 15:25



<461026>1 Corinthians 10:26



<440120>Acts 1:20


1, 2

<450407>Romans 4:7, 8



<402224>Matthew 22:24



<600310>1 Peter 3:10



<411220>Mark 12:20



<431525>John 15:25



<421027>Luke 10:27



<450318>Romans 3:18



<580506>Hebrews 5:6



<581005>Hebrews 10:5



<470909>2 Corinthians 9:9



<431318>John 13:18



<470413>2 Corinthians 4:13



<450836>Romans 8:36



<451511>Romans 15:11


7, 8

<580108>Hebrews 1:8, 9



<581306>Hebrews 13:6



<450304>Romans 3:4


22, 23

<402142>Matthew 21:42



<490408>Ephesians 4:8



<450313>Romans 3:13



<451503>Romans 15:3






Psalms sung at the Passover, 111-118

The Believer’s Scruples, arising from the Prosperity of the Wicked, removed by Revealed Religion and the considerations of their Latter End, 73.

— sung at the Feast of Trumpets, 81

Meditations of the Believer, in which he encourages himself and others to hope in God, and fortifies his mind against the Assaults of temptation, 62.

— sung at the Feast of Tabernacles, 65 67

The high value which the Believer sets on God’s Sanctuary, 42, 43, 74.

David’s Prayers for Protection and Deliverance from his Enemies, 3, 4, 9, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 64, 70, 71, 86.

Humility of Spirit exemplified, 131.

— confidence in God in Danger, 142.

The Believer’s Prayers for Protection and Deliverance from Wicked Men, 3, 4, 5, 10,12, 13, 17, 25, 26, 42, 43, 54, 120, 140.

— Thanksgivings for Deliverance from his Enemies, 11, 18, 27, 31, 40, 68, 138.

Jehovah celebrated as the Guardian of His People, 121.

— Good Resolutions in prospect of being put in possession of the Throne, 101.

The Believer’s Potential Confessions and Deprecations, 6, 32, 38, 39, 51, 102, 130, 143.

— Exhortations to Trust in God, and to study Godliness from the example of his own deliverance, 31, 34.

Lamentations of the Believer when under very Severe Afflictions, and almost at the point of despair, 88.

The Blessedness of the Righteous, and the Final Perdition of the ungodly, 1, 36, 37, 52, 112, 128.

The Believer’s Thanksgiving for Deliverance from great Danger, 28, 30, 61, 116.

True Believers distinguished from Hypocrites, 15, 24.

The supposed Happiness of the Ungodly evanescent; and good men, however much afflicted, the Objects of the Divine Regard, 49.

Reprehension of those who place religion in mere Ritual Observances, and under the veil of these shelter Impurity of Heart and Life, 50.

The Goodness of God to His Ancient People, 77, 78, 105, 114.

The Believer separates himself from idolaters, and rest in God as his Portion, 16.

Prophetic Denunciations against the Enemies of Christ, 109.

The Protection which God affords to His People in the hour of Danger or Calamity, 91.

The Excellence of God’s Word, 19, 119.

Jehovah celebrated as the Shepherd of His People, 23.

Celebration of the Glory of God as manifested in Creation, and in the Order and various Wonders of Nature, 19, 29, 93, 104.

The Stubborn and Ungrateful Character of God’s Ancient People, 78, 95.

The Providence of God on Shipwrecks, Famines, and in all the ills which befall Mankind, as well as in the Happy Issue of Events, 117.

The Jewish Church’s Confession of the Sins of their Fathers, 116.

The Divine Omniscience, 139.

Corrupt State of the Jewish Church brought about by the Reign of Saul 14, 53.

The Blessing of having Children, 127.

A Common Form of Prayer to be used by the Ancient Church in behalf of the King and Kingdom of Israel when threatened with Danger, 20.

Prayers for Defense and Personal Protection, when Persecuted under False Charges, 7, 35.

A Public and Solemn Thanksgiving for the Prosperous Condition of the King of Israel, 21.

Prayers that the spirit may be bridled under unprovoked Injuries, 141.

Jerusalem celebrated as the Seat of the Ark and of the Worship of God, 122.

On Uncharitable Judgments pronounced on the Righteous when severely afflicted by the hand of God, 41.

Prayers for God’s Presence in the Temple Worship, 132.

Kings Addressed and Warned, 2.

Songs of Triumph upon successful War, 60, 108.

Character and Doom of Wicked Rulers and Judges, 58, 82.

Prayers in the Church under Persecution, or in the Seasons of Calamity or of Threatened Danger, 37, 44, 74, 79, 80, 83, 89, 94, 115, 123, 129, 144.

Lamentations over the Brevity and Miseries of Human Life, 90.

The Safety of the Church celebrated, 125.

The Believer incites himself to Praise God for the display of His Perfections in the Government of the World, and especially for His Goodness to the Children of Men, 145.

Thanksgivings for the Deliverances of the Church, 46, 48, 66, 76, 124.

Exhortations to Praise God because of His Justice displayed in the Protection of His People, and in the Destruction of the Wicked, 92.

The Church’s Affliction in Babylon, 137.

The Prosperity of Abraham in Distinction from the surrounding Nations are incited to Praise God for their peculiar Mercies and Privileges, 95, 99, 134, 135, 136, 149.

The Church’s Prayers in Babylon, 102.

They are called upon to Praise Him with every variety of Musical and Privileges, 95, 99, 134, 136, 149.

Prayer of the returned captives, that God would deliver them from the Calamities with which they were still afflicted, 135.

They are called upon to Praise Him with every variety of Musical Instruments, 140.

Song of Triumph and Thanksgiving of the Returned Captives, 126.

All Mankind, and not merely the Jews, are exhorted to Praise God, 96, 98, 100, 117.

The Christian Church celebrated, 2, 45, 72, 87, 97.

All Creatures, Rational and Irrational, Animate and Inanimate, are invited to Praise Him, 148.

The Triumph of the Church over the Proud Despisers of God, 75.


The Beauty of Christian Concord, 133.


Messiah’s Prayers under his Sufferings, 22, 69.


Messiah’s Regal and Priestly Offices celebrated, 110.


Messiah’s Regal Character and Reign described, 45, 72.


Messiah’s Victories, 18, 68.


The certain Punishment of the Persecuting Wicked, 52.





fte233 Many commentators are strongly of opinion, that this Psalm was written as a memorial of that very interesting scene in the life of David, recorded in 1 Samuel 24, relating to his generous treatment of Saul. Though he had an opportunity of putting that his cruel persecutor to death in the cave of En-gedi, yet he spared his life, only cutting off his skirt, and not suffering his followers to touch him; and when Saul had gone out of the cave, David going out after him, remonstrated with him from some distance in the gentlest and most respectful language in regard to the injustice of his conduct towards him. It is thought that the sixth verse contains so express a reference to this very remarkable occurrence in David’s history, as to leave little doubt that it was the occasion on which the Psalm was composed.

Fte234 As, here and in the preceding clause, is a supplement, very properly made by our author; a word signifying like, or in the stead of, being frequently understood in the Hebrew text of the Psalms.

Fte235 The allusion, according to the opinion of most commentators, is to the morning and evening sacrifices, of which see an account in <022938>Exodus 29:38-42. In the phraseology of the verse it. is supposed that there is a reference to the commencing and concluding acts of the daily public worship among the Jews. Every morning and evening the priests offered incense upon the incense-altar which stood in the holy place, while the people prayed without. But in the morning the incense was offered before the sacrifice was laid upon the altar of burnt-offering; whereas in the evening (at the ninth hour) it was offered after the sacrifice was laid upon the altar; and thus in the evening the sacrifice and the incense were offered at the same time. See Lightfoot’s Temple Service, chapter 9:section 5. Dr. Adam Clarke, however, thinks that David does not refer to any sacrifice; “for,” says he, “he uses not jbz, zebach, which is almost universally used for a slaughtered animal, tjnm, minchath, which is generally taken for a gratitude offering, or an unbloody sacrifice.” He translates the last two words “the evening oblation.”

Fte236 “Car pource que lors Dieu vouloit que les prieres des fideles fussent sanctifiees par encensement et par sacrifices, David s’appuye sur ceste promesse.” — Fr.

Fte237 “C’est a dire qu’il ne s’enyure de la vaine douceur qu’ils out en se desbordant a mal, et qu’ainsi il ne s’esgaye en pechez.” — Fr.

Fte238 As one cutting and slitting. Many persons understand yx[, wood, after these participles, supposing the comparison of scattering the bones to be made with the scattering of wood after it has been cleft. But it is more probable that what the Psalmist intended to say was in substance as follows: ‘Our bones lie scattered at the edge of the grave, just as one cutting and cleaving the earth in making a grave often throws up bones, which may be seen scattered here and there with the earth lying at its sides.’ The verse is poetical, and the figure indicates great distress.” — Phillips.

Fte239 “Que l’huile de la teste ne rompe point ma teste, c’est a dire, que les meschans ne m’amadouent point par leurs flatteries a ma perdition et ruine.” Fr.

Fte240 Those who understand this verse as containing an allusion to the generous manner in which David acted towards Saul in the cave of En-gedi, and to his mild expostulation after they had both left the cave, translate thus: —

“Their princes on the sides of the rock were dismissed,
or let go in safety; And they heard my words that they were pleasant.”

      This exactly corresponds with the occurrences referred to. In correspondence with the first line, it, is said in <092402>1 Samuel 24:2, that Saul and his chosen men went to seek David upon the rocks of the wild goats; and the terms in which David expostulated with Saul, were so gentle, dutiful and affecting, as for the time to melt into tenderness and contrition the heart of Saul, and to impress the minds of all who heard them.

Fte241 If David here refers to the treatment he and his followers met with at the hands of Saul, this exhibits in dark colors the extreme inhumanity of that monarch. “We are not sufficiently informed,” says Walford, “respecting the cruelties which were perpetrated against David and those who adhered to him, to enable us to point out the instances to which he here alludes; but the murder of Abimelech, and of the priests who were with him, furnishes a pregnant proof of the atrocities which Saul and his agents were capable of perpetrating. (See 1 Samuel 22.) It appears from the language of this verse that such enormities were not confined to a few cases, but must have been numerous, to give occasion to the image which is employed to describe them.” How striking the contrast between David’s treatment of Saul, and that which Saul adopted towards him! Mr. Peters in his Dissertations on Job, gives an exposition of this 7th verse which is ingenious, and which Archbishop Secker calls “admirable, though not quite unexceptionable.” Understanding the verse as referring to the slaughter of the priests at Nob, just now adverted to, he renders the words ypl lwa, (which Calvin translates, at the grave’s mouth,) at the mouth, that is, at the command of Saul. In. support of this translation he produces similar expressions, h[rp yp l[, at the command of Pharaoh, (<014521>Genesis 45:21,) and ˚yp l[, at thy command. (<183917>Job 39:17.) To this rendering there is, however, this strong objection, that we do not find David ever mentioning Saul by name in any of the Psalms. Peters, indeed, states that this objection was offered to him against his view, and he endeavors to remove it, though, as we think, with indifferent success.

Fte242 “Jusques a ce que je passe.” — Fr. “Until I pass.”

Fte243 “C’est le propre de la foy de rassembler lessens de la personne dispersez, lequels autrement s’esvanouiroyent a chacun coup.” —Fr.


Fte244 In the history of David we read particularly of the two caves in which he took shelter, that of Adullam, (<092201>1 Samuel 22:1,) and that of En-gedi, (<092403>1 Samuel 24:3.) The latter is generally supposed to be the cave here

fte245 In the Hebrew the verb is in the future — “I will cry;” but as that language has no present tense, it frequently uses for it the past and future promiscuously. Bishop Horne, therefore, renders in the present all the verbs in this Psalm, which Calvin translates in the past, except the verbs in the two first verses, which he renders in the future. Translators, however, in general concur with Calvin, and we think justly, the Psalm, as we conceive, being a recollection of the substance of the prayers he addressed to God while in the cave of En-gedi, but which it cannot be supposed he had then an opportunity of committing to writing.

Fte246 “Or c’est une belle similitude quand il dit que son esprit a este en tortille et enveloppe,” etc. — Fr.

Fte247 The allusion here, it is supposed, is to the observances of the ancient Jewish courts of judicature, in which the advocate, as well as the accuser, stood on the right hand of the accused. (<19A905>Psalm 109:5.) The Psalmist felt himself in the condition of one who had nobody to plead his cause, and to protect him in the dangerous circumstances in which he was placed.


fte248 To the title “A Psalm of David,” some copies of the Septuagint and the Vulgate add — “when his son Absalom pursued him,” (see <101724>2 Samuel 17:24, 25;) and interpreters in general agree that this is the most probable occasion on which it was penned.

Fte249 Walford thinks there is probably here a reference to the great transgression, the consequences of which followed David all his days. “As he would not fail to be reminded of it,” says that writer, “by the sorrows which had now come upon him, from Absalom’s misconduct, and as his purpose was, notwithstanding, to implore divine support and deliverance, he deprecates God’s righteous judgment, since if no man could be just with God, certainly he, who had so greatly transgressed, could have no claim to such a state. The consciousness of his guilt, though he had reason to believe it was forgiven, induced him thus to abase himself before God, when he was about to offer earnest entreaties for deliverance from dangers which threatened his dignity and life; while he still maintained his hope, that God looked upon him as his servant, whom he had pledged himself to protect.”

Fte250 lw[ ytmk. These words are differently rendered in the ancient versions. The Septuagint has wJv nekrou<v aijwnov, as the dead of the age; the Syriac, forever; the Chaldee, as they that lie down of that age. The real sense of the expression is, as they who have been dead a long time. The Psalmist employs hyperbolical language in this verse; he says, the enemy hath beaten his life to the ground, hath made him dwell in dark places, and for such a length of time, that there remained no remembrance of him, and that he had become like those persons who had long since been in their graves. The design of all this is to express emphatically great sorrow and oppression.” — Phillips.

Fte251 In the Book of Common Prayer it is — “My soul gaspeth unto thee as a thirsty land.” Mant translates similarly. The word gaspeth is a supplement, but it may convey the precise meaning; and according to this view the allusion is to the cracking of the lands of the east, in consequence of the extreme drought of the summer months. These dry lands, as has been noticed by travelers, have often chinks too deep for a person to see to the bottom of. This may be observed in the Indies more than anywhere, a little before the autumnal rains fall, and, wherever the lands are rich and hard. See <241404>Jeremiah 14:4.

Fte252 In our English Bible the verbs “quicken,” “scatter,” and “destroy,” are in the imperative mood; but Calvin renders them in the future tense. In this he is followed by Dr. Hammond and Bishop Horne; “and then,” as this last commentator remarks, “the Psalm will end as usual, with an act of faith and assurance that all those mercies which have been asked shall be obtained.”

Fte253 Que Dieu quand il commence a traitter ses serviteurs plus doucement, fait (par maniere de dire) luire un jour nouveau. — Fr.

Fte254 “Je confesse bien que le mauvais esprit de Dieu agite et transporte les reprouvez, (car Dieu execute ses jugemens par les diables,)” etc. — Fr.


fte255 The ideas and the phraseology of a considerable part of this Psalm appear to be borrowed from the eighteenth.

Fte256 The occasion on which this Psalm was written can only be conjectured. The Septuagint, Vulgate, Aethiopic, and Arabic versions entitle it “A Psalm of David against Goliah;” and that the Chaldee paraphrast took this to be the subject of the Psalm is evident from his reading in verse 10th, “the sword of Goliah.” Judging, however, from internal evidence, the enemies referred to seem rather to be those of David and his kingdom, after he ascended the throne. Some refer the Psalm to David’s war with the Ammonites and Syrians, recorded in 2 Samuel 10.; and it may have been composed by him when about to encounter these hostile powers.

Fte257 “Ou, mon rocher.” — Fr. marg. “Or, my rock.”

Fte258 Those who conjecture that ym[, amim, is the correct reading, refer to the parallel passage in <191847>Psalm 18:47, where the word is in the plural. They also observe in support of their opinion, that this reading is actually found in a great number of MSS. examined by Kennieott and De Rossi; and they account for ym[, ami, having got into the text by supposing that it was written in the first instance as a contraction for ym[, amim. Rosenmuller supposes, but with less probability, that the original word was [, and that the letter y, yod, is paragogic, that is, has been annexed to improve the sound; [, am, being taken collectively. The Masorets have noticed that [, which the translators of our English Bible took to be [, with its possessive affix here, in <102244>2 Samuel 22:44, and <250314>Lamentations 3:14, and consequently rendered by my people, is to be taken as the plural number of that noun.

Fte259 “Et mesmes combion qu’en espluchant la nature des hommes il eust peu toucher d’autres choses, pour lesquelles ils sont indignes. — neantmoins,” etc. — Fr.

Fte260 Bow thy heavens. This expression is derived from the appearance of the clouds during a tempest: they hang low, so as to obscure the hills and mountains, and seem to mingle heaven and earth together. Such an appearance is figuratively used to depict the coming of God, to execute vengeance upon the enemies of his people. See <191810>Psalm 18:10, and other instances.” — Walford.

Fte261 The verbs in this and the two following verses are in the imperative mood, whereas in the corresponding passages in the eighteenth Psalm they are in the past tense. This difference is best accounted for by supposing, with Calvin, that these verses are the language of prayer, uttered by David in a time of threatened danger from the enemies of his kingdom and people; whilst those of the eighteenth Psalm were spoken after some signal deliverance or deliverances had been vouchsafed.

Fte262 “Scatter them. The antecedent of ‘them’ is ‘peoples’ in verse second.” — Walford.

Fte263 “In taking an oath the right hand was lifted up. The enemies of David profaned their oaths by violating the covenants into which they entered, and breaking their solemn engagements.” — Walford.

Fte264 “The meaning is, the hands with which they confirm their treaties of peace and leagues of friendship are immediately lifted up against the lives and liberties of their allies.” — Warner.

Fte265 In the French version it is — “Upon the psaltery, and upon an instrument of ten strings.” It is evident that Calvin supposed two instruments to be here mentioned. This, however, has been doubted. The rendering in the Hebrew text is — rw[ lbnb, benebel asor, “with a nobel (or psaltery, as the term is translated in our English Bible) ten (stringed).” Thus only one musical instrument may be indicated — “the psaltery of. ten strings.” In <193302>Psalm 33:2, we read similarly, rw[ lbnb, benebel asor, “with the psaltery ten (stringed).” In <194203>Psalm 42:3, however, nebel and asor are represented as two distinct musical instruments. We there read, lbnAAyl[w rw[Aayl[, ale-asor veale-nabel, “upon the asor or ten (stringed instrument), and upon the nebel or psaltery.” But whatever inference may be drawn from the independent exhibition of asor in that text, yet in the passage before us, and in <193302>Psalm 33:2, if we may judge from the construction, it seems rather to represent the number of strings of the common nebel or psaltery, or a particular variety of that instrument, than to be a distinct musical instrument. With respect to the Hebrew nebel from which comes the nablov; of the Greeks, and the nablum of the Latins, our information is very limited and indistinct. It is supposed to have been a stringed instrument of the harp or lyre kind, and appears to have been of the triangular form. As it is not noticed in Scripture earlier than the days of David, it is not considered of equal antiquity with some other musical instruments. It was formed of precious wood, as we learn from <111012>1 Kings 10:12, and ultimately, according to Josephus, of that species of precious mixed metal called electrum. From its being never mentioned in the Sacred Writings, except in connection with the worship of the sanctuary, it has been conjectured that it was not used in private, and that it was probably larger, and more costly, than other instruments of a similar kind. Josephus says that it was played upon with the fingers, and had twelve strings. The number of strings may, however, have varied according to circumstances.

Fte266 “The paraphrase of Bishop Patrick, doubtless, conveys the real meaning: ‘Tall and beautiful, like those polished pillars which are the ornaments of a palace.’” — Illustrated Commentary upon the Bible. “The polished corners of the Temple — rather, the sculptured angles, the ornament of a palace. Great care and much ornament were bestowed by the ancients upon the angles of their splendid edifices. It is remarkable that the Greeks made use of pilasters, called Caryatides, (carved after the figure of a woman dressed in long robes,) to support the entablatures of their buildings.” Cresswell.

Fte267 “Ou, produisans, fournissans.” — Fr, marg. “Or, producing, providing.”

Fte268 In the East sheep are remarkably fruitful, bringing forth, as Boehart shows, not only two at a time, (Song 4:2,) but sometimes three or four, and that twice a year. This accounts for the prodigious number of sheep which whitened the extensive pastures of Syria and Canaan. See <120301>2 Kings 3:4; <130521>1 Chronicles 5:21; <143507>2 Chronicles 35:7; <196501>Psalm 65:14.

Fte269 In our streets. Streets are not proper places for sheep. The word twxwj, chutzoth, is different from that properly rendered ‘streets’ in the ensuing verse, and is the same that is translated ‘fields’ in <180510>Job 5:10. The word literally means ‘outplaces,’ and as such is susceptible of various applications; in the present text it probably denotes the outpastures in the commons and deserts.” Illustrated Commentary upon the Bible.

Fte270 “Ou, gras” — Fr. marg. “Or, fat.”

Fte271 “Grant that our sons may be as plants,” etc. Such is the view taken by the Translators of the English Bible.

Fte272 wnywzm, Our garners. This word is to be found in Scripture only once, but it has most probably the same root as tywz, and it may denote primarily our corners, and then our garners; because garners or storehouses were usually at the ends or corners of edifices.” — Phillips.

Fte273 Literally, “from kind to kind.”

Fte274 ylbsm, burdened, viz. with flesh, according to Pagninus, who has onusti carne. The root is lks, and the form is the pual participle, which occurs only in this place. Compensis has paraphrased it: santi et ferendis oneribus apti. Perhaps burdened oxen may be a phrase equivalent to our beasts of burden such as are strong and adapted to carry burdens; and here the prayer of the Psalmist is, that they may be eminently fitted for this service.” — Phillips.


Fte275 This Psalm is with much propriety entitled “Praise of David; “ for it is throughout a continued celebration of the perfections and doings of God. It is certainly one of the most interesting and beautiful of the compositions of the sweet singer of Israel; and so high an opinion did the ancient Hebrews form of it that they were wont to say — “Whoever utters this Psalm thrice each day with the heart and tongue is a happy man, and shall infallibly enjoy the blessings of the world to come.” The time and occasion of its composition can only be conjectured. Dr. Morison thinks it probable that it was composed by David when he and the nation of Israel obtained the blessings which he implored in the preceding Psalm; and that it is that new song which he purposed to sing (<19E409>Psalm 144:9) when God appeared in glory for his chosen people. This is the last of the alphabetical Psalms. The first verse commences with the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the second verse with the second letter, and so on to the close, with the exception that the hemistich of which n, nun, was the commencing letter is wanting. The other alphabetical Psalms are Psalm 25, Psalm 34, Psalm 37, Psalm 111, Psalm 112, Psalm 119.

Fte276 The Jewish government was a theocracy.

Fte277 “In seculum et usque.” — Lat. The original Hebrew words are d[w ly[l, leolam vaad, which Dr. Adam Clarke had translated “for ever and onward in this and the coming world.” “These sorts of expressions,” he adds, “are very difficult to be translated.”

Fte278 “Ou, parleray.” — Fr. marg. “Or, will speak of.”

Fte279 After this verse two lines appear to have been lost in the Hebrew text. The Psalm, as we have said before, is alphabetical; and each stanza begins with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet in regular order, till we come to <19E514>Psalm 145:14, when a break — the only one in the Psalm — takes place. <19E513>Psalm 145:13 begins with the letter m, mem, and <19E514>Psalm 145:14 with the letter s, samech. Thus the stanza beginning with the letter, n, nun, is wanting. it is thus supplied in the Septuagint: Pisto<v Ku>riov ejn pa~si toi~v lo>goiv aujtou~ kai< o[siov ejn pa~si toi~v e]rgoiv aujtou~. “Faithful is Jehovah in all his words, and holy in all his works.” Dr. Adam Clarke, after observing that there is not a verse answering to n, nun, in any of the printed copies of the Hebrew Bible, states, that there is one MS., now in Trinity College, Dublin, which has it thus (he supposes by correction) at the bottom of the page:

wy[m lkb dysjw wyrbd lkb hwhy ˆman

Neeman Yehovah be-cal debaraiv; ve-chasid be-cal maasaiv.

      This exactly corresponds with the reading in the Septuagint. “Nothing,” says Dr. Lowth in Merrick’s Annotations on the Psalms, “can be more certain than the genuineness of the verse n which the Septuagint has preserved, varying only in two words from <19E517>Psalm 145:17.”

Fte280 “Si la bonte de Dieu ne surmonte cest empeschement, c’est en vain que les Prophetes traitteroyent de sa grace et misericorde.” — Fr.

Fte281 ylpn nophelim, the falling, or those who are not able to keep their feet — the weak. He shores them up — he is their prop. No man falls through his own weakness merely; if he rely on God, the strongest foe cannot shake him.” — Dr. Adam Clarke.

Fte282 “Il ne sera point mal connenable que l’affection soit yei mise pour la chose mesme.” — Fr.

Fte283 “Les autres voudroyent qu’il fust sujet a eux: les autres comme par maniere d’acquit cerchent cluelque moyen de l’appaiser,” etc. — Fr.


fte284 In the original Hebrew and in the Chaldee paraphrase, no author’s name is prefixed to this Psalm: in the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate, AEthiopic, and Arabic versions it is ascribed to Haggai and Zechariah. Upon the supposition that it was written by these Prophets its composition would be after the captivity; “and it may refer,” says Dr. Adam Clarke, “to the time when Cyrus, prejudiced by the enemies of the Jews, withdrew his order for the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, to which revocation of the royal edict the <19E603>Psalm 146:3 may refer, ‘Put not your trust in princes,’ etc.” Horsley, proceeding on the same view, entitles it, “A thanksgiving of the returning captives.” There is, however, nothing in it which prohibits us from looking upon it as a Psalm of David.

Fte285 Horsley prefers translating “his false deceitful show,” instead of “his thoughts.” He observes, that the original word is literally “his glitterings.” Parkhurst would render the original word “splendours, glories,” “which,” says he, “makes an excellent sense.”

Fte286 That is, with the word “Hallelujah,” the Hebrew for “Praise Jehovah.” Hence they have been called, “Hallelujah Psalms.”

Fte287 In our English Bible it is “openeth the eyes of the blind.” From this clause some of the ancients concluded that the whole of the attributes here enumerated are intended to apply to Christ. Bishop Horne, and other modern divines, entertain the same opinion. But though all that is here said may with the strictest truth be predicated of Christ, the propriety of restricting the interpretation of the Psalm to him, upon the slender ground specified, may be doubted. Walford translates this clause — “Jehovah delivereth them that are in darkness.” “There is no word,” says he, “in Hebrew to correspond with the ‘eyes’ of the English Bible; and it is more in agreement with the parallelism of the verse, to understand this clause of persons who are in distress and adversity, expressed by being in darkness.”

Fte288 “Qui saepe frenum rodendo, malunt putrescere in suis miseriis, quam ad certum hoe asylum se conferre.” — Lat.


Fte289 In the Hebrew text, and in the Chaldee and Vulgate versions, this Psalm is without a title, but in the Septuagint it is assigned to the days of Haggai and Zephaniah, the title being — Allelouia Aggaiou kai Zacariou; and this may be regarded as a probable reference. In <19E702>Psalm 147:2 and <19E713>Psalm 147:13 there seems to be an allusion to the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Bishop Horsley entitles it — “Thanksgiving of the returned captives. Perhaps composed for a Pentecost or Feast of Trumpets, after the Restoration.” “Eben Ezra, and other Jewish writers, think that it foretells the future rebuilding of Jerusalem, and the restoration of the Jews from their present captivity, and refer it to the times of Messiah.” — Dr. Gill.

Fte290 The Hebrew word here is rwnk, kinnor. It is uniformly translated “harp” by Calvin, and also by the translators of our English Bible. But as is supposed by Calmet and others, it more probably corresponded with the lyre of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In the Septuagint it is usually either thrown into the Greek form kinura, cinyra, or rendered kiqara, cithara, one of the various names by which the principal varieties of the ancient lyres were distinguished. And where these are not the words by which it is rendered in that version, it is rendered by other names which the Greeks gave to different forms of the lyre. From this it is evident that the translators of the Greek version believed that rwnk kinnor, denoted the lyre, although from their translating it by different words, each signifying a particular variety of that instrument, they were uncertain as to the particular species of lyre. “The brief intimations in Scripture are in full accordance with this statement; for it is not described as such an instrument — large, heavy, and resting on the ground when played — as the word ‘harp’ suggests to our minds; but as a light portable instrument, which the player carried in his hand or on his arm, and might walk or dance the while. In fact, Scripture describes the kinnor as being used in such a manner and on such occasions as we know the lyre to have been by the ancients, who indeed had not, so far as we know, any harps large and resting on the ground like ours. We speak only of the Greeks and Romans, however, for the Egyptians had large standing harps; from which we shall in a future note take occasion to conclude that such were also known to the Hebrews, while we retain our impression that the lyre is denoted by the kinnor.” — Illustrated Commentary upon the Bible. The kinnor is an instrument of the highest antiquity, being one of those two invented by Jubal before the flood. <010421>Genesis 4:21. It was used at an early period on festal occasions, as appears from the next instance in which it is mentioned in Scripture, six hundred years after the deluge, namely, in Laban’s words to Jacob, as recorded in <013127>Genesis 31:27. It was also used by the prophets in their sacred music, as we learn from the next instance in which it is noticed — in the time of Samuel, <091005>1 Samuel 10:5. The notes of the kinnor might be mournful, (<231611>Isaiah 16:11;) but they were also cheerful, (<182102>Job 21:2; <183031>Job 30:31; <091623>1 Samuel 16:23; <19D702>Psalm 137:2.) This musical instrument was constructed of wood, <111012>1 Kings 10:12; and it no doubt was to be found among the Hebrews of different forms and power, and varying in the number of strings. The ancient lyres were either played with the fingers, or struck with a plectrum, an instrument which appears generally to have consisted of a piece of ivory, polished wood, or metal, in the form of a quill.

Fte291A “After this clause the Vulgate, the Septuagint, AEthiopic, Arabic, and Anglo-Saxon add, ‘and herb for the service of man.’ It appears that a hemistich or half line has been lost from the Hebrew text, which, according to the above version, must have stood as in <19A414>Psalm 104:14.” — Dr. Adam Clarke.

Fte292A “Car quant a la fable que les Juifs racontent, que les corbeaux laissent leur petits si tost qu’ils sont esclos,” etc. — Fr.

FTe293A We learn from Chardin in a manuscript note on this passage, as quoted by Harmer in his Observations, that towards the Black Sea, in Iberia and Armenia, and therefore he imagines in other countries also, “the snow falls in flakes as big as walnuts; but not being either hard or very compact, it does no other harm than presently to cover and overwhelm the traveller.” The inspired writer had probably seen flakes of equal size on the mountains of Judea; and this would suggest to his mind the strikingly appropriate figure, “He giveth his snow like wool.”

FTe294A Walford translates, “He casteth down his ice in hail-stones.” “The expression, ‘like morsels,’“ says he, “is a literal version of the Hebrew, but it gives so imperfect and obscure a representation of the meaning, as to induce the substitution which is here found. There can be no doubt but that hail is the thing intended: in this the critics are unanimous. It is most likely that the Hebrew term, which is translated ‘morsels,’ means small pieces of some substance, which we cannot now determine.”

FTe295A “The cold is sometimes extremely severe and even mortal in Palestine and the neighboring countries. Fulchirius Carnotensis, as cited by Mr. Harmer, ‘saw the cold prove deadly to many. Jacobus de Vitriaco informs us, that the same thing happened to many of the poorer people, engaged in an expedition in which he himself was concerned, against Mount Tabor: they had suffered severely the preceding days by cold; but on the 24th of December it was so sharp that many of the poor people, and of the beasts of burden, actually died. Albertus Acquensis tells us the same thing happened to thirty of the people that attended King Baldwin I., in the mountainous districts of Arabia by the Dead Sea, where they had to conflict with horrible hail, with ice, and unheard of snow and rain.’ These citations, as Harmer appositely remarks, may remove our wonder at such passages as that here commented on, in a hymn composed in those warmer climates.” — Mant.


fte296A Milton, in his Paradise Lost, (Lib. 5. line 53, etc.,) has elegantly imitated this Psalm, and put it into the mouth of Adam and Eve as their morning hymn in a state of innocency.

Fte297A “Que les estoilles sont plus haut que les planetes, et qu’icelles planetes sont situees en divers cercles ou spheres.” — Fr.

Fte298A “Laudate Iehovam e terra.” — Lat. “Louez le Seigneur, vous creatures de la terre.” — Fr.

Fte299A “Ou, balenes.” — Fr. marg. “Or, whales.”


fte291 “The Jewish government was a Theocracy, which commenced at the time of the departure from Egypt; and continued in some degree till the coming of Christ, as had been foretold by Jacob, <014910>Genesis 49:10.” — Dimock.

fte292 In our English Bible it is in the text, “in the dance;” and on the margin, “or with the pipe.” lwjm machol, the Hebrew word employed, is often in our authorized version rendered “dance”; but this is not its meaning. It denotes, as Parkhurst states, “some fistular wind instrument of music, with holes, as a flute, pipe or fife, from lj, chal to make a hole or opening.” “I know no place in the Bible.” Says Dr. Adam Clark, “where lwjm, mechol, and tljm, mechalath, mean dance of any kind; they constantly mean some kind of pipe.”

fte293 The Hebrew name for this kind of this musical instrument is t, toph. The timbrel, tympanum, or tambourine, was used chiefly by women, and was employed in choral dances, or occasions of religious or festal processions. Thus we read in <021520>Exodus 15:20, 21, “And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and dances. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.” The principle of the p, toph, or timbrel was that of a prepared skin stretched upon a hoop or frame. There were various kinds or forms of this instrument. “Our common tambourine, with small cymbals inserted in the frame, also appears in some paintings, [of Egyptian and European antiquity,] and is now very common in Western Asia. We are told that the frame was either of metal or wood and that the ass’s skin was usually employed for the covering. They were not always played by the naked hand; but were sometimes struck with small batons, or with a knotty whip with many thongs, instead of which, on particular festivals, a sprig of some tree or plant, considered suitable to the occasion, was sometimes employed.” — Illustrated Commentary upon the Bible. The timbrel is evidently of oriental origin. From the reference to it in <013127>Genesis 31:27, where t is translated “tabret,” we learn that it was known in the time of Jacob, that is, ages previous to the existence of the great European nations of antiquity; and both the Greeks and Romans confessed that their instruments of this class were derived from Egyptians and Syrians. See volume 3.

fte294 The people of the East sat on couches in their private parties, banquets, etc., as well as reposed on them during night. The language here may, therefore, be expressive of the praise they would ascribe to God at their festal banquets and in their private companies. An exhortion has previously been given (<19E901>Psalm 149:1) to praise God in the public assembly. Green supposes that the reference is to the couches on which they reclines when they partook of the eucharistical sacrifices.

fte295 “The original is nwrgb, in their throats. It is probable the Hebrew, when a living language, was extremely guttural, as the Arabian language now is.” — Fry.

fte296 “Qui est ici dit du glaive trainchant des deux cotes, appartient specialment aux Juifs, et ne peut pas estre approprie an nous,” etc. — Fr.


fte297 “The trumpets of the last Temple were probably formed after the ancient model; and as these are represented among the spoils of that Temple on the Triumphal Arch of Titus at Rome, we are enabled to see that they were long straight trumpets, of a form which has always been and continues to be common… Trumpets and horns are the only instruments concerning which any directions are given in the law. ‘In the infancy of a state,’ says Burney, ‘a nation has but little leisure for cultivating music any otherwise than as it is connected with religious rites and the military art ;’ and it is thus that he accounts for the fact, that (with the exception of Miriam’s timbrel) no instruments but horns and trumpets are noticed in the Law. And, indeed, it may be said that they are scarcely mentioned as musical instruments, but as suited to and employed for making signals, calls, and conveying instructions during the religious solemnities, and in the field of war… It is clear, however, that trumpets and cornets were introduced into the musical choirs in the time of David; while they still continued to be employed in their former service. The following particulars concerning the use of trumpets in the Temple will be useful, and are collected chiefly from Lightfoot’s ‘Temple Service.’ The trumpets were sounded exclusively by the priests who stood not in the Levitical choir, but apart and opposite to the Levites, on the other side of the altar, both parties looking towards it—the priests on the west side, and the Levites on the east. The trumpets did not join in the concert; but were sounded during certain regulated pauses in the vocal and instrumental music.—Illustrated Commentary upon the Bible..

fte298 See footnote 293, <19E903>Psalm 149:3.

fte299 See footnote 292, <19E903>Psalm 149:3.

fte300 The original word is ynmb “This word occurring nowhere else, it is impossible to ascertain what kind of instrument this was, but as Edwards, upon the authority of Rabbi Hannase makes, it a stringed instrument, and the word is probably derived from hnm, to number, probably it was so called from the extraordinary number of strings which it had; and perhaps it was the decachord, mentioned in <193302>Psalm 33:2, which, having ten strings, might be called Minim, kat ejxoch<n, as consisting of the greatest number of strings in use among the Jews.” — Dimock.

fte301 The Hebrew name is bg[, ougab. This instrument is equal in antiquity to the rwnk, kinnor, both being mentioned in <010421>Genesis 4:21, as the invention of Jubal. These are the two first musical instruments the invention of which is recorded in Scripture, and the only ones mentioned before the deluge. Subsequently they are almost always mentioned in connection with each other. The ougab was not that complicated instrument which goes by the name of the organ in the present day. Calmet supposes it to have been a flute which consisted of a number of pipes, of unequal thickness and length, set close or joined together, which gave harmonious sound when blown into, by moving them successively under the lower lip. Such is the common opinion, and there seems no ground to dispute its correctness. This instrument was the small organ or syrinx, or fistula Panis of antiquity; its invention having been ascribed to Pan, the great sylvan god, who was usually figured with the instrument in his hands. According to the fable, he formed it of reeds which grew by the river, and played upon it while his goats were feeding on the banks; which shows that it was regarded as properly a pastoral instrument, and as such it seems to be mentioned by Job. (<182111>Job 21:11, 12.) The principle of its construction is so simple, that it is among the most widely diffused of musical instruments. It is in common use in the island of New Amsterdam, in the South Seas, as flutes and drums have been found in Otaheite and New Zealand, an uncontestable proof that these are instruments which tribes the most barbarous and the most remote from each other naturally invent. The number of tubes, as represented on ancient monuments, varies from seven to eleven.

fte302 Of the Hebrew musical instrument called lxlx, tsiltel, or “cymbal,” as Calvin here renders it, and as it is rendered in the Septuagint and Vulgate, two kinds are here mentioned — ylxlx, “tsiltelim,” or, “cymbals of sound,” and “tsiltelim,” or “cymbals of jubilation.” The specific difference between these two sorts of the same instrument is not accurately marked. The latter were probably of a larger size than the farmer, or made of such a shape or of such metals as to emit a louder sound. The former are translated by French and Skinner, “the soft cymbal.” The literal translation of the Hebrew is, “cymbals of hearing,” i.e., say these critics, “cymbals which when struck do not overpower the voices of the singers.” They translate the latter, “the loud cymbals.” The ancient cymbals were two convex or hollow plates of brass or other metal, as silver or copper, made in the form of cups, which were held in each hand, and which being struck against each other produced a sharp clanging. sound. Some, however, think that the word tsiltzel exclusively denotes the sistrum, and that cymbals, properly speaking, are denoted by the word yyl shalishim, in <091806>1 Samuel 18:6, which is, equally with the other, rendered cymbala by the Septuagint and the Vulgate, and which our authorized version translates “instruments of music.” It is difficult to decide as to these two opinions; but it seems admitted on all hands that both cymbals and sistrums were in use among the Jews. The sistrum was a concave plate of sonorous metal, and of an oval configuration, crossed by bars of the same metal with reverted ends. These bars moved freely in the holes through which they passed, and when the instrument was shaken by the handle to which it was fixed, the reverted ends striking upon the body of the instrument produced the sound. It had generally three or four transverse bars. It was much used by the Egyptians in their religious services, and actual specimens of it of an ancient date have been discovered. See volume 3.

TRanslation Footnotes

ftf64 According to the Hebrew division, Part 1 extends from Psalm 1 to Psalm 41 inclusive.

Psalm 4

ftf65 This line is freely rendered. For the literal translation, see the text as given in the commentary.

Psalm 22

ftf66 “I am poured out.” — Fr.

ftf67 “Are.” — Fr.

ftf68 “Is.” — Fr.

ftf69 “Is.” — Fr.

ftf70 “Is.” — Fr.

Psalm 24

ftf71 In the French version it is “mighty in battle.”

Psalm 28

ftf72 i.e. Courteously, peaceably.

Psalm 33

ftf73 “La viole.” — Fr.

Psalm 35

ftf74 That is the pitfall in which the net was placed to catch the victim.

Psalm 36

ftf75 In the French version it is “rise.”

Psalm 37

ftf76 In French version the word is “terrible,” which is the idea of the original Hebrew term.

Psalm 38

ftf77 Calvin has inadvertently omitted in his Latin version to translate the word yyj “living.” But he translates it in his French version.

Psalm 40

ftf78 In the Latin version it is “aptasti;” and in the French, “tu as perce.”

ftf79 According to the Hebrew division, Part 2 extends from Psalm 42 to Psalm 72 inclusive.

Psalm 51

ftf80 In the French Version it is “the whole oblation.”

Psalm 52

ftf81 In the French Version it is “because thou shalt have executed this vengeance.

Psalm 55

ftf82 Literally, “wickedness.”

ftf83 Ibid

ftf84 A free translation is here given. See the Commentary for the literal rendering.

Psalm 57

ftf85 “Psaltery” in the French version.

Psalm 59

ftf86 Literally “man.”

ftf87 In the French version the reading is —

“And let men know even unto the ends of the earth,
That God ruleth in Jacob. Selah.”

Psalm 62

ftf88 The free translation of the French version is here adopted. The literal rendering of the Hebrew text is, “In the scales in going up they [are lighter] than vanity together.” To this Calvin strictly adheres in his Latin version.

Psalm 65

ftf89 Literally, “iniquities.”

ftf90 In the French version it is “by the power.”

ftf91 Dominatur seculo. — Lat. “Il domine sur le monde.” — Fr.

Psalm 71

ftf92 Literally, “moreover.” But see the Commentary.

ftf93 “In organo musico.” — Lat. “Avec irgyes de musique.” — Fr. The Hebrew is lbnAAylkb bichli-nebel, “which is the instrument of the nebel, or psaltery.”

Psalm 72

ftf94 In the French versions this line reads — “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, the God of gods.”

ftf95 According to the Hebrew division, Part 3 extends from Psalm 73 to Psalm 89 inclusive

Psalm 74

ftf96 In French version it is, “which thou hast acquired of old.”

ftf97 From the obscurity of the literal translation of the Latin version, the free reading of the French version is adopted in these two lines.

ftf98 Literally “break.”

psalm 78

ftf99 In the French version it is “to the grasshopper.”

Psalm 79

ftf100 “That is,” says Jebb, “let there be some spared out of those who are marked out for death by their enemies.”

psalm 80

ftf101 “Shoot” is the rendering in the French version, the word being “provin.” In the Latin version it is “filium,” “son,” the literal translation of the Hebrew text.

Psalm 81

ftf102 Psaltery. — Fr.

ftf103 We follow here the French version. In the Latin version, instead of “trumpet” it is “harp,” which is evidently incorrect.

Psalm 83

ftf104 In the French version it is “greatly.”

psalm 88

ftf105 “To the grave.” — Fr.

ftf106 “To the pit.” — Fr.

Psalm 89

ftf107 In the French version it is “thou hast founded.”

ftf108 Literally, “of what age I am.”

ftf109 According to the Hebrew division, Part 4 extends from Psalm 90 to Psalm 106 inclusive.

psalm 90

ftf110 In the French version it is, “Thou carriest them away as do floods of water.”

Psalm 92

ftf111 In the French version it is “le manichordion,” which Randle Cotgrave translates “an (old fashioned) Clavicord.”

ftf112 In the French version this line reads, — “With the song upon the harp.”

Psalm 93

ftf113 “From that time,” that is, from the creation of the world mentioned in the previous verse.

ftf114 In explaining this verse, Calvin expresses his approbation of a translation somewhat different: —

“As from eternity thou art,
Even so thy throne hath been erected (or prepared) from that time.”

ftf115 “A vocibus.” — Lat. “A cause du bruit.” — Fr.

Psalm 100

ftf116 “Exsultate Jehovae.” — Lat. “Chanter a haute voix au Seigneur.” — Fr.

ftf117 In the French it is “give glory to him.”

psalm 102

ftf118 From verse 3d to verse 11th inclusive, the verbs we have rendered in the present tense are in the preterite in the Latin version, but in this instance we follow the French version in which they are in the present.

ftf119 “Tears” — Fr.

psalm 105

ftf120 In the Commentary we have translated “they asked,” by mistake. Calvin seems to understand this as spoken of God.

psalm 106

ftf121 Literally, “And.”

ftf122 According to the Hebrew Division, Part 5 extends from Psalm 107 to Psalm 150 inclusive.

psalm 107

ftf123 “With” or “from.” — Fr.

psalm 108

ftf124 In the French version it is “in.”

psalm 109

ftf125 Literally, “wicked” or “ungodly.”

ftf126 In the French version it is — “And let his children be vagabonds and beg.”

ftf127 In the French version it is — “And seek [for bread] going out of their waste or ruined dwellings.”

ftf128 Literally, “be to destruction.”

ftf129 In the French version it is “sin.”

ftf130 Literally, “work.”

psalm 111

ftf131 Literally, “beauty and honour.”

psalm 112

ftf132 In the Latin version it is “verba,” “words,” but Calvin rejects this translation in the commentary. In the French version it is “affairs.”

psalm 113

ftf133 Literally, “who exalteth himself to dwell.”

psalm 115

ftf134 In the French version it is “they have mouths.”

psalm 116

ftf135 The translation of these two verses is free, being modified by Calvin’s Commentary. For the literal translation, see Vol. 4.

ftf136 Literally, it is “hath recompensed upon thee.”

psalm 118

ftf137 In the French version, in this and the two following verses, it is “that.”

ftf138 Literally, “thrusting thou has thrust.”

ftf139 Literally, “chastising hath chastised me.”

psalm 119

ftf140 Here the reading in the Latin text is ambiguous. The above is the reading in the French version; and as determined by Calvin in the Commentary.

ftf141 In the French version it is, “have forged lies.”

ftf142 “Horruit.” — Lat.

ftf143 Literally, “I have prevented the twilight.” — But see the Commentary.

Psalm 122

ftf144 In the French version it is, “for there are set.”

psalm 124

ftf145 “Is escaped.” — Fr.

psalm 131

ftf146 These two lines which are David’s oath are in the abrupt form in which the Jews were accustomed to swear.

psalm 132

ftf147 These two verses have also the abrupt termination characteristic of the Jewish form of swearing.

psalm 133

ftf148 “Descendit.” — Lat. “Descend.” — Fr.

psalm 135

ftf149 In the French version the verb for “speak” in this line; and the verbs for “see” and “hear” in the two next lines, are in the present tense.

psalm 137

ftf150 Literally, “above the head of my joy.”

psalm 139

ftf151 “If I make my bed” — Fr.

ftf152 Literally, “for terribly I have been made wonderful.”

ftf153 “Thine eyes did see me when I was yet without form.” — Fr.

psalm 147

ftf154 “Their wounds.” — Fr.

ftf155 Literally, “to the sons.”


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