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INDEX TO NOTES
THE CHRISTIAN VIEW OF THE WORLD IN GENERAL.
- The Idea of the "Weltanschauung."
- Relation of Christianity to world-theories.
- General drift and scope of the Lectures.
From theology of feeling.
- Examination of sentimental theory.
- Impossibility of extruding doctrine from Christianity.
From the Ritschlian distinction of a "religious" and a "theoretic" view of the world.
- Relative justification of this distinction.
- Error of the Ritschlian view--Impossibility of sundering faith and reason.
APPENDIX TO LECTURE
SKETCH OF THE CHRISTIAN VIEW.--
THE CHRISTIAN VIEW AND ITS ALTERNATIVES.--
- Central place of Christ's Person in His religion.
- Method of this Lecture--appeal to history; logical movement in history.
- History a series of alternatives--the downward movement.
- First alternative--A Divine Christ or humanitarianism.
- Second alternative--A Divine Christ or Agnosticism.
- Third alternative--A Divine Christ or Pessimism.
- The upward movement from Pessimism to Christ.
- Unsatisfactoriness of Pessimism as a theory of existence--it works back to Theism.
- The alternative of Pantheism--its degradation to Materialism.
- The nobler movement--elevation to Theism.
- Theism impels to belief in Revelation.
- Recognition in modern systems of idea of Revelation.
- Inadequacy of modern theory of Revelation.
- Vocation of Israel; Christ the highest Revealer.
- Summary--Theism can only secure itself through belief in Christ.
APPENDIX TO LECTURE II.
THE PESSIMISM OF SCEPTICISM.--
THE THEISTIC POSTULATE OF THE CHRISTIAN VIEW.--
- Christianity a theistic system.
- The strength of Christian Theism--its connection with Revelation.
- This first postulate of the Christian view--how related to modern thought?
The negation of the Christian view.
- The Agnostic negation--why so regarded?
- It negates the Christian view of God as self-revealing.
- The denial of evidence of God's existence tantamount to denial of His existence.
- Mr. Spencer's admission of the Ultimate Reality or Power; criticism of his view.
- Development of the system by Mr. Fiske into Theism.
Positive evidence for the Christian view.
- Concessions of the evolutionary philosophy.
- The term "Personal" as applied to God.
- This theoretic "proofs" for the existence of God--how far valid?
- (1) The cosmological argument.
- The religious experience corresponding to this proof--the consciousness of absolute dependence.
- (2) The teleological or design argument.
- Argument against design from evolution.
- Two views of evolution: criticism.
- Wider form of this argument (order, plan, law, etc.).
- (3) The ontological argument.
- The Anselmic form and Kant's criticism.
- New form of this argument Rational Realism.
- The religious experience corresponding to the teleological and ontological argument's--sense of the Divine in nature.
The moral argument--contrast with theoretic proofs.
- God a postulate of the "practical reason."
- Religious experience corresponding to the moral proof.
APPENDIX TO LECTURE III.
GOD AS RELIGIOUS POSTULATE.--
THE POSTULATE OF THE CHRISTIAN VIEW OF THE WORLD
IN REGARD TO NATURE AND MAN.--
- Second postulate of the Christian view: man made in the image of God.
- The doctrine of man closely linked with the doctrine of nature.
The natural basis--the doctrine of creation.
- The consonance of this doctrine with reason: three oppositions--
- The opposition of Dualism (Martineau, Mill), etc.
- The opposition of Pantheism : logical derivation of the universe (Spinoza, Hegel, etc.).
- The opposition of Atheism: self-existence and eternity of the world.
- Evidences of a beginning
- Difficulties of the doctrine of creation in time.
- Proposed solutions of these difficulties.
- The motive and end of creation (Kant, Lotze, etc.).
The nature of man, and his place in creation: man the final cause of the world.
- Man the link between the natural and the spiritual.
- Man as bearing the image of God.
- The potential infinitude of man's nature.
- Materialism and consciousness--
- Grosser form of Materialism: mind and brain identified (Moleschott, Vogt, etc.).
- Newer form of Materialism: Monism (Strauss, Haeckel, etc.).
- Ambiguity of the term "matter" in Tyndall, etc.
- Refutation of Materialism: matter itself needs thought to explain it.
Man as made in the image of God constituted for immortality.
- Modern rejection of doctrine of a future life.
- If man constituted for immortality, the fact must show itself in his nature and capacities.
- Universal prevalence of belief in a future state. Spencer's theory; its inadequacy.
- Rational grounds for this belief : nature of evidence.
THE POSTULATE OF THE CHRISTIAN VIEW IN REGARD TO THE SIN AND DISORDER OF THE WORLD.--
- Third postulate of the Christian view: the sin and disorder of the world.
- Christianity does not create the problem of natural and moral evil, but helps to solve it.
The problem of moral evil: conflict of Christian and modern views.
- Respects in which the modern view comes to the support of the Christian view.
- Fundamental difference between the Christian and the modern view.
- Sin in the Christian view not something natural, necessary, and normal, but the result of a free act of the creature.
- Theories of sin opposed to the Christian view--
- Theories which seek the ground of evil in the constitution of the world.
- Theories which seek the explanation of evil in the nature of man.
- Sin in all these theories made something necessary.
- Weakening or destruction of idea of guilt.
- Differences between the Christian and the modern view depend on theory of origin.
- Theory of man's original brutishness--relation to narrative of the Fall.
- Relation of Christian view to modern theories of the antiquity of man.
- Science does not negative the idea of a pure beginning of the race: the Biblical account of primeval man.
The problem of natural evil: connection with moral evil.
- Natural evil in the inorganic world.
- Natural evil in the organic world.
- The question altered when we come to self-conscious, rational man.
- Connection of natural evil with sin: nature and admissibility of this connection.
- The Pauline view: what it implies.
Culmination of this problem in the question of the relation of sin to death.
- Man created for immortality.
- Death the sundering of essential parts of his being: therefore abnormal.
- The true immortality is through Redemption, and embraces the resurrection of the body.
APPENDIX TO LECTURE V.
THE OLD TESTAMENT DOCTRINE OF IMMORTALITY.--
THE CENTRAL ASSERTION OF THE CHRISTIAN VIEW : THE
INCARNATION OF GOD IN CHRIST.--
- Completion of argument in second Lecture.
- A priori objection to the Incarnation based on Christ's lowliness.
Testimony of the apostolic age as throwing light on Christ's own claims.
- Modern agreement as to general teaching of New Testament--the Johannine writings.
- The Epistles of Paul--
- The undisputed Epistles--the " Heavenly Man" theory.
- The later Epistles -- Christology of Philippians, Colossians, etc.
- The Epistle to the Hebrews an independent witness.
- The doctrine of the Apocalypse as high as John's or Paul's (Reuss, Pfleiderer).
- The Petrine and Minor Epistles.
- Discourses in the Acts.
- Conclusion:--The supernatural view of Christ's Person established in first generation of believers.
The testimony of the Gospels--Christ in the Fourth Gospel.
- The Christ of the Synoptics also a supernatural Being.
- The claims of Jesus--the titles "Son of Man," and "Son of God"--His eschatological claims, etc.
- Representation of the character of Christ--His sinlessness.
- The works of Jesus in keeping with His claims.
- The resurrection of Jesus--the Trinitarian formula, etc.
- The Synoptic representation of Christ in keeping with the apostolic estimate of His Person.
- Conclusion:--The facts of Christ's Revelation require the supernatural view of His Person: impossibility of evading this claim.
Doctrinal aspects of the Incarnation: proposed reconstructions.
- In what sense modern theories ascribe "Godhead" to Christ.
- Are these theories tenable on their own merits?
- Do these theories do justice to the facts of Christ's Revelation?
- What is not, and what is, true Incarnation.
- Consideration of Kenotic theories (Phil. ii. 7).
- Relation of preceding discussion to the early Christological decisions.
- Advances in modern speculation.
- The question of the impersonality of Christ's humanity.
- The Incarnation to be studied in the light of its revealed ends.
APPENDIX TO LECTURE VI.
THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS OF JESUS.--
HIGHER CONCEPT OF GOD INVOLVED IN THE INCARNATION--THE INCARNATION AND THE PLAN OF THE WORLD.--
- Recapitulation of defective theories.
Higher concept of God involved in the Incarnation--God as triune.
- This doctrine the result of an induction from the facts of Revelation.
- How far this doctrine is anticipated in the Old Testament.
- This doctrine of the Trinity as involving distinctions in the Divine essence.
- Objection on this score--"One and Three."
- Drawbacks of the word "Person" need of the expression.
- Proof that distinctions of this kind are implied.
- Alternative view an economical Trinity.
- Relations of the doctrine to rational thought.
- Psychological analogies in Augustine and others.
- Relation of the doctrine to self-consciousness, etc.
- The deduction from knowledge.
- The deduction from love.
- Deduction from the Divine Fatherhood--God eternally Father.
- Bearing of the Trinity on God's relation to the world --safeguard against Deism and Pantheism.
The Scripture view brings creation and Redemption into line--consequences of this.
- Relation of the Incarnation to the plan of the world.
- World there have been an Incarnation had man not sinned.
- History of the question.
- Strong point against this theory--the constant connection of Incarnation with Redemption.
- Difficulty arises from too abstract a view of the Divine plan.
- Great weight on this question to be attached to the revealed end--the gathering up of all things in Christ.
- Harmony of Scripture with this view--
- The Scriptures know of only one undivided purpose of God.
- They assert a direct relation of the Son with creation.
- They represent Christ as the final cause of creation.
- God's purpose actually tends to the unification of all things in Christ.
- Summary and conclusion.
THE INCARNATION AND REDEMPTION FROM SIN.--
- Christianity a religion of Redemption.
- Special question--The connection of Redemption with the sufferings and death of Christ.
Scripture testimony on this subject--the apostolic witness.
- Does Christ's teaching agree with that of the apostles?
- Proof that Christ attached a redemptive significance to His death.
- Grounds on which the apostolic Church proceeded--
- The objective facts of Christ's death, resurrection, etc.
- Christ's sayings on the meaning and necessity of His death.
- The teaching of the Old Covenant as throwing light on Christ's work.
Explanation of the redemptive significance of Christ's death--theories of Atonement.
- Modern desire to connect the Atonement with spiritual laws.
- The Atonement considered from the point of view of the Incarnation.
- Points taken for granted in all Christian theories of Redemption.
- Theories differ as they attach themselves to one or another of these points.
- Theories of fellowship: Schleiermacher, etc.
- Theories based on idea of sympathy: Bushnell.
- Points in which this theory comes short.
- Dr. Bushnell's later modification of his view.
- Theories based on idea of vocation: Ritschl.
- Theories which recognise an objective element in the Atonement: in what does it consist?
- Theories based on idea of self-surrender of holy will to God: Maurice, etc.
- Theories which recognise a relation to guilt: Campbell's theory of vicarious repentance and confession.
- Deeper elements in Campbell's view--the "Amen" in response to God's judgment on sin.
- Christ's sufferings viewed as expiatory.
- Objections to this view--the innocent suffering for the guilty.
- The real question--How should such sufferings become expiatory for others?
- Recapitulation and conclusion.
THE INCARNATION AND HUMAN DESTINY.--
- Necessity of an eschatology.
- The Christian view eschatological because teleological.
The astronomical objection to Christianity.
- The objection a quantitative one.
- The bearing of sin on this question.
- The issues of Redemption not confined to this planet.
Principles of interpretation of eschatological prophecy.
- The nearer aim of Christianity--the coming of the kingdom of God on earth.
- History has its goal--transition to eschatology proper.
- The positive and bright side of the Christian view.
- The aim of God is conformity to the image of the Son.
- This includes likeness to His glorious body: the resurrection.
- The perfecting of the Church carries with it the perfecting of nature.
- Pictorial and scenic elements--
- The personal Advent--how to be interpreted?
- The Coming a process in which many elements flow together.
- Still, a personal Coming is implied.
- The general Judgment.
- Its certainty.
- Parabolic character of descriptions.
The dark side of this question--the destiny of the wicked.
- Three theories on this subject--
- Dogmatic Universalism.
- The doctrine of Annihilation: Conditional Immortality.
- The doctrine of Eternal Punishment.
- Fundamental positions laid down--
- The principle of certain retribution for sin.
- Need for distinguishing between what Scripture teaches and subjects on which it is simply silent.
- A larger calculus needed than we at present possess.
- Criticism of theories--
- Scripture does not warrant dogmatic Universalism.
- Scripture does not warrant Annihilation.
- Theory of "Conditional Immortality" criticised.
- The theory of Future Probation.
- Facts which suggest caution--
- (1) Concentration of every ray of exhortation and appeal into the present.
- (2) The judgment invariably represented as proceeding on the data of this life.
- (3) The silence of Scripture on future probation: limits of the application of 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20; iv. 6.
- Result--We have not the elements of a complete solution.
CONCLUSION OF LECTURES.
THE IDEA OF THE KINGDOM OF GOD.