Chapters 28--35 are often referred to as Volume Five and the Book of Woes preceding restoration glories.
Chapter 28 gives the woe against Ephraim. Verses 1-13 cover the judgment of the ten tribes; while the fate of Ephraim and the warning to Judah are given in verses 14-29.
In chapter 29:1 we see the word "Ariel." This is a name for Jerusalem, which means "the lion of God." In this chapter Isaiah is prophesying that the nation would suddenly be overwhelmed. We will see in chapter 37:36 that this prophecy was fulfilled. All this happened despite Jerusalem's sacred character as the lion of God, because the people were only giving lip service to the Lord and were following men's commandments rather than the commandments of God. Because of their turning away from God, the Lord would encamp against them. He would besiege Jerusalem (verses 2 and 3) until the city was brought to the dust (verses 4 and 5). The Lord would then deal with Jerusalem's enemies (verses 5-10). Verses 11 and 12 give us the prophecy for the end-time. Verses 13-16 show the condition of the people as being one of religious blindness and empty formalism. Woe is pronounced upon those who think their dark deeds are hidden from the Lord.
We see in chapter 30 that the people again put their trust in man. They looked to Egypt for help, but in vain. The contempt of Jehovah, accompanied by refusal of the people to hearken to His Word, added yet more to their iniquity. God allowed the evil, but only in order to give free course to His grace. He allowed the chastisement to be fully accomplished, that nothing might be left for Him but perfect grace.
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