CATHOLIC CHRONICLE III
Salvation According to Rome
Edited and compiled by Keith Green
Last Days Ministries, Box 40, Lindale, TX 75771-0040
"...the free gift of God is eternal life in Jesus Christ our Lord!"
- Rom. 6:23
How blessed it is to know Jesus! His love, His mercy, His
righteousness, His forgiveness! He has promised to "cast all our sins into
the depths of the sea" (Mic. 7:19) and to separate us from our sins "as far
as the east is from the west!" (Ps. 103:12).
This is the good news! (That's the literal meaning of the word
"gospel" - good news!) That is what the true church of our God has the
privilege of proclaiming..."liberty to the captives!!" (Lk. 4:18).
The reason I begin this article on the Roman Catholic view of salvation
with such rejoicing in my Saviour, is because I have just finished reading
a mountain of official (Roman) church literature on the subject, and I can
honestly say, I have never had such joy in my heart of hearts about the
finished work of Christ. As I scoured each page and read of penance,
confession, venial and mortal sins, indulgences, purgatory, etc., I then
had the infinite pleasure of searching the Scriptures to see what they had
to say on these fundamental Catholic doctrines.
Oh what relief my soul found in the Scriptures! What holy joy! What
clarity of light I saw, as the simple brilliance of God's mercy shown into
my mind. If there is anything more beautiful than God's love and patience
with man, it has never been revealed to mortals!
All this to say that I am bogged down with the information I have
accumulated, and I will probably have to cover it all in this, Chronicle
III, briefly touching on each subject, while always coming back to the main
question: "According to Rome, how can a man or woman be saved from the
consequences of his sinful nature and actions, and how can they gain
assurance that they are in a right standing before God?"
If the future permits, I will come back in another installment and
cover some of these subjects (particularly, purgatory and indulgences) in
far greater depth and detail. It is our desire to see people find the true
salvation that Jesus dies for - therefore, we must deal with that great
(and most important) subject wholly, before taking the time to supply other
necessary (and most revealing) subject matter.
The Catholic Teaching on Sin
Before we can understand what Catholics are taught about salvation, we
must first see what they are taught they need to be saved from. In Matt.
1, the angel of the Lord speaks to Joseph in a dream about his bethrothed,
Mary, saying "she will bear a Son, and you shall call His name Jesus, for
it is He who will save His people from their sins" (vs. 21).
Today, many evangelicals toss around the term "saved" without much
thought. "When did you get saved?" someone might ask. It's almost like a
title, or a badge that a person wears to prove that he's become part of the
club - the "saved" club. Others are under the impression that when a
person talks of being "saved", they are talking about being saved from many
different things - sickness, death, the devil, hell, etc. But when the
angel of the Lord used that precious word to prophesy that Jesus would
fulfill all the predictions of the prophets, he made very clear what Jesus
was coming to save His people from...their sins!
In official Roman Catholic theology, this too is the main thing that
people are taught they need to be saved from - their sins. But the only
thing that Catholic and evangelical teachings have in common on the
subject of sin...is the spelling! For when a Catholic talks about his
"sins", you must find out first if he is talking about "mortal" sins, or
"venial" sins. And then you must ask him "how do you get rid of them?"
The answer given will likely confound a non-Catholic. For words like
"faith", "repentance", even "Jesus" will usually be missing in the answer.
Instead, a whole new list of other words will have to be learned, defined,
and understood before the evangelical can fully grasp how a Catholic is
taught his sins (and the penalty due them) can be canceled out.
Mortal and Venial Sins
The first of these unfamiliar words are the names of the two groups
Rome has separated all sins into. Now if you're a Catholic, you might be
wondering why I'm making such a big deal - for the dividing of sins into
two distinct categories (each with their own set of consequences and
remedies) has been part of Catholic doctrine for a long, long time.
According to Rome's definition, mortal sin is described as "any great
offense against the law of God" and is so named because "it is deadly,
killing the soul and subjecting it to eternal punishment." Venial (1)
sins, on the other hand, are "small and pardonable offenses against God,
and our neighbor." Unlike mortal sins, benial sins are not thought to damn
a soul to hell, but with the committing of each venial sin, a person
increase his need for a longer stay in the purifying fires of a place
called "purgatory." (Look that word up in your Bible dictionary - you'll
find it right next to "venial"!)
Now, there is no agreement among the priests as to which sins are mortal
and which are venial, but they all proceed on the assumption that such a
distinction does exist. The method of classification is purely arbitrary.
What is venial according to one may be mortal according to another.
According to Rome, the pope is infallible in matters of faith and
doctrine. (2) He should then be able to settle this important matter by
accurately cataloging those sins which are mortal as distinguished from
those which are venial. However, there are some definites in the "mortal"
category: blatantly breaking one of the ten commandments, practically all
sexual offenses (whether in word, thought or deed) and a long list of
transgressions which have changed throughout the centuries.
For instance, until Vatican II (3) it was a mortal sin to attend a
Protestant church, to own or read a Protestant Bible, or to eat meat on
Friday! Oh, and it's still a mortal sin to "miss Mass on Sunday morning
(4) without a good excuse" (which means that considerably more than half
of the claimed Roman Catholic membership throughout the world is constantly
in mortal sin!) Venial sins include things like thinking bad thoughts,
having wrong motives, losing your temper, etc. - things that do not
necessarily "lead into actual sin" but still, nevertheless, are sins that
need to be eradicated in some way.
What Does the Bible Say?
The Bible makes no distinction between mortal and venial sins. There is
in fact, no such thing as a venial sin. ALL SIN IS MORTAL! It is true
that some sin are worse than others, but it is also true that all sins if
not forgiven bring death to the soul. The Bible simply says: "The wages
of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23). And Ezekial says: "The soul that sinneth,
it shall die" (18:4).
James says that "whosoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles in one
point, he has become guilty of all" (2:10). He meant, not that the person
who commits one sin is guilty of all other kinds of sin, but that even one
sin unatoned for, shuts a person completely out of heaven and subjects him
to punishment, just as surely as one misstep by the mountain climber
plunges him to destruction in the canyon below.
In the light of these biblical statements, the distinction between
mortal and venial sins is shown to be completely absurd. In fact, the very
act of classifying sins into "greater and lesser" is immoral in itself. We
know how quick human nature is to grasp at any excuse for sin. Rome seems
to be saying "these sins are really bad! But those? Well...you can get
away with a few of them and not really suffer too much." Speaking of
"getting away" with something, let's get right down to how Rome teaches you
can "get rid of" your sins.
The Catholic system starts to get real complicated when we begin to
look at the ways one can erase both their mortal and venial sins. "Two
kinds of punishment are due to mortal sin: eternal (in hell forever), and
temporal (in purgatory). Eternal punishment is canceled by either baptism
(5) or confession to a priest." (6)
The Baltimore Catechism defines confession as follows: "Confession is
the telling of our sins to an authorized priest for the purpose of
attaining forgiveness." The important words here are "authorized priest."
And to be genuine, a confession must be heard, judged, and followed by
obedience to the authorized priest as he assigns a penance, such as good
works, prayers, fastings, abstinence form certain pleasures, et. A penance
may be defined as "a punishment undergone in token of repentance for sin,
as assigned by the priest" - usually a very light penalty.
The New York Catechism says, "I must tell my sins to the priest so that
he will give me absolution. (7) A person who knowingly keeps back a mortal
sin in confession commits a dreadful sacrilege, and he must repeat his
The Priest's Role
Canon law 888 says: "The priest has to remember that in hearing
confession he is a judge." And the book, Instructions for Non-Catholics (8)
says: "A priest does not have to ask God to forgive your sins. The priest
himself has the power to do so in Christ's name. Your sins are forgiven by
the priest the same as if you knelt before Jesus Christ and told them to
Christ Himself." (9)
"The priest forgives the guilt of mortal sins which save the penitent
form going to hell, but he cannot remit the penalty due for those sins,
and so the penitent must atone for them by performance of good works which
he prescribes. The penitent may be, and usually is, interrogated by the
priest so that he or she may make a full and proper confession. Stress is
placed on the fact that any sin not confessed is not forgiven, any mortal
sin not confessed in detail is not forgiven, and that the omission of even
one sin (mortal) may invalidate the whole confession. Every loyal Roman
Catholic is required under pain of mortal sin to go to confession at least
once a year. (10) But even after a penitent has received pardon, a large,
but unknown amount of punishment remains to be suffered in purgatory." (11,
Technically, venial sins need not be confessed since they are
comparatively light and can be canceled by good works, prayers, extreme
unction. (13) etc., but the terms are quite elastic and permit considerable
leeway on the part of the priest. It is generally advised that it is safer
to confess supposed venial sins also since the priest alone is able to
judge accurately which are mortal and which are mortal and which are
venial. The Baltimore Catechism says: "When we have committed no mortal
sins since our last confession, we should confess our venial sins or some
sin told in a previous confession for which we are again sorry, in order
that the priest may give us absolution. (14) What chance has a poor sinner
against such a system as that?
As an example, a minister friend of mine who was brought up in the
Catholic Church, tells the story of how his older brother went to
confession every single week and confessed the same sin to the same priest
and was given the same penance in order to receive absolution. This went
on week after week, year after year. One day, while on a trip from home,
he decided that he would not break his pattern of going to weekly
confession, so he went to another Catholic Church in the city he was
visiting. He went into the confession box and confessed the same sin to a
different priest. He began with "forgive me Father for I have sinned," and
then began confessing the sin once again, but this time he was shocked when
the priest said: "But my son, that's not a sin!" My friend's brother got
up, and hurried out the door, and from that day on he has never stepped
foot in any church again.
We search in vain in the Bible for any word supporting the doctrine of
"auricular confession." (15) It is equally impossible to find any
authorization or general practice of it during the first 1000 years of the
Christian era. Not a word is found in the writings of the early church
fathers about confessing sins to a priest or to anyone except God alone.
Auricular confession is not mentioned once in the writings of Augustine,
Origen, Nestorius, Tertullian, Jerome, Chrysostem, or Athanasius - all of
these and many others apparently lived and died without ever thinking of
going to confession. No one other than God was thought to be worthy to
hear confessions or to grant forgiveness.
Confession was first introduced into the church on a voluntary basis in
the fifth century by the authority of Leo the Great. But it was not until
the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 under Pope Innocent III that private
auricular confession was make compulsory and all Roman Catholic people were
required to confess and to seek absolution from a priest at least once a
year. If they did not obey this command, they were pronounced guilty of
mortal sin and damned for eternity to hell. (16)
Can A Priest Forgive Sins
The Scriptures teach that "only God can forgive sins" (Mark 2:7). "The
Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (Matt. 9:6). Dr.
Zachello tells of his experience as a priest in the confessional before
leaving the Roman Church, in these words: "Where my doubts were really
troubling me was inside the confessional box. People coming to me,
kneeling down in front of me, confessing their sins to me. And I, with the
sign of the cross, was promising that I had the power to forgive their
sins. I, a sinner, a man, was taking God's place. It was God's laws they
were breaking, not mine. To God, therefore, they must make confession; and
to God alone they must pray for forgiveness." (17)
In fact, the only word in the Bible about confessing sins to anyone
other than God, is found in James: "Confess your sins to one another, and
pray for one another, so that you may be healed" (5:16). It is obvious
that the Lord meant what He says in Revelation, chapter 1, that "He has
made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father" (vs. 6), and Peter
calls the church "a chosen race, a royal priesthood" (I Pet. 2:9). Believe
it or not, the only mention of New Testament believers being priests is
used in a context where all true believers are included, not just a select
few. That is why James could say that we should confess our sins "to one
Catholics love to quote the verse in John 20:23 to prove that priests
do have the power to "forgive and retain" sins. "If you forgive the sins
of any, their sins have been forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any,
they have been retained." The powers of forgiving and retaining sins, were
given to the apostles as proclaimers of the Word of God, not as priests.
As we have just pointed out, there are no christian "priests" in New
Testament teaching and doctrine. Pastors, yes. Deacons, yes. Apostles,
prophets, teachers, evangelists, yes. Priests, no!
Jesus was telling His followers that by preaching the gospel, they were
being given the power to declare that a person's sins were forgiven them by
God! And if an individual, or group did not receive them and the
forgiveness they offered in the name of Jesus, than they were instructed to
"shake the dust off their feet" as a protest against them, and warn them
that it would be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of
judgment than for them (Matt. 10:14-15). In other words, if a person
rejected the apostles' preaching of the gospel, they had the right to tell
that person that his sins were not forgiven, because they had rejected
God's only provision for atonement of sins. "The one who listens to you
listens to Me, and the one who rejects you rejects Me" (Luke 10:16). This
power to forgive and retain sins, contrary to Rome's teaching, belongs to
everyone who preaches the true gospel of salvation.
In the Roman system, penance is one of the seven sacraments. (18) The
Baltimore Catechism defines penance as "the sacrament by which sins
committed after baptism are forgiven through the absolution of the priest."
(19) Another catechism published in New York says, "the priest gives
penance to help me to make up for the temporal punishment does not always
make full satisfaction for my sins. I should therefore do other acts of
penance...and try to gain indulgences." (20) And in Instructions for Non-
Catholics, we read: "After confession some temporal punishment due to sin
generally remains. You should therefore perform other acts of penance also
so that you may make up for these punishments, and avoid a long stay in
Penance as a System of Works
Here indeed is salvation by works. For penance, as the catechism says,
involves confession on one's sins to a priest and the doing of good works
as the only way by which sins committed after baptism can be forgiven. The
Church of Rome thus demands acts of penance before She grants forgiveness,
inferring that the sacrifice of Christ was not sufficient to atone fully
for sin and that it must be supplemented to some extent by these good
But what God demands is not acts of penance but repentance, which means
turning from sin.
"Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts;
and let him return to the Lord, and He will have mercy upon him; for He
will abundantly pardon" (Isa. 55:7).
The easy way in which the Church of Rome deals with sin is seen in this
doctrine of penance. The penitent receives pardon on comparatively easy
terms. He is assigned some task to perform, usually not too hard,
sometimes merely the recital of a given number of "Hail Mary's." the
result is that he has no qualms about resuming his evil course. It shocked
Martin Luther when he read the Greek New Testament edited by Erasmus, that
Jesus did not say "do penance" as had been translated by the Roman Church,
Penance versus Repentance
Penance is a wholly different thing from gospel repentance. Penance is
an outward act. Repentance is of the heart. Penance is imposed by a Roman
priest. Repentance is the work of the Holy Spirit. What God desires in
the sinner is not a punishment of oneself for sins, but a change of heart, a
real forsaking of sin, shown by a new life of obedience to God's commands.
In short, penance is a counterfeit repentance. It is the work of man
on his body; true repentance is the work of God in the soul. The Divine
Word commands, "Rend your heart and not your garments" (Joel 2:13).
Penance is "rending the garments" - an outward form without inward reality.
While Romanism does teach that Christ died for our sins, it also
teaches that His sacrifice alone was not sufficient, and that our
sufferings must be added to make it effective. In accordance with this,
many have tried to earn salvation by fastings, rituals, flagellations and
good works of various kinds. But those who attempt such a course always
find that it is impossible to do enough to earn salvation.
Dr. C.D. Cole says, "Romanism is a complicated system of salvation by
works. It offers salvation on the installment plan, then sees to it that
the poor sinner is always behind in his payments, so that when he dies
there is a large unpaid balance, and he must continue payments by
sufferings in purgatory, or until the debt is paid by the prayers, alms,
and sufferings of his living relatives and friends. The whole system and
plan calls for merit and money from the cradle to the grave and even
beyond. Surely the wisdom that drew such a plan of salvation is not from
The Biblical Teaching on Good Works
Good works, of course, are pleasing to God and they have an important
and necessary place in the life of the Christian. they naturally follow if
one has true faith, and they are performed out of love and gratitude to God
for the great salvation that He has bestowed. Good works, in other words,
are not the cause and basis of salvation, but rather the fruits and proof
of salvation - "Not by works done in righteousness which we did ourselves,
but according to His mercy He saved us through the washing of regeneration
and the renewing the Holy Spirit" (Titus 3:5). The born-again Christian
produces good works as naturally as the grapevine produces grapes. They
are a part of his very nature. He performs them not to get saved, but
because he is saved.
Salvation by Grace
Grace, just because it is grace, is not given on the basis of
proceeding merits. By no stretch of the imagination can a man's good works
in this life be considered a just equivalent for the blessings of eternal
life. But all men because of pride, naturally feel that they should earn
their salvation, and a system which makes some provision in that regard
readily appeals to them. But Paul lays the axe to such reasoning then he
says: "If a law had been given which was able to impart life, then
righteousness would indeed have been based on law" (Gal. 3:21). Time and
again the Scriptures repeat that salvation is of grace, as if anticipating
the difficulty that men would have in accepting the fact that they would
not be able to earn it.
The Council of Trent, in its opposition to the reformer's doctrine of
justification by faith, and in defense of its doctrine of penance,
declared: "Whosoever shall affirm that men are justified solely by the
imputation of the righteousness of Christ...let him be accursed". (23)
And the Catholic Almanac says, "Penance is necessary for salvation...and
was instituted by Christ for the forgiveness of sins". (24)
The modern church teachings completely concur: "Many things are
necessary for salvation. All these things work together - faith, baptism,
the Eucharist, the doing of good works, and others as well. Redemption is
one thing, salvation is quite another. There is nothing lacking on Christ's
part; there is much to be done on ours." (25) Also, in a booklet
published in 1967, under the sub-heading, "We Must Atone Too", it says that
"even though the satisfaction of Christ was complete and universal,
nevertheless all adult Christians are obliged to imitate their suffering
Master and make personal satisfaction for their sins by good works. (26)
But the apostle Paul in his masterpiece on justification by faith says,
"Having now been justified by His blood we shall be saved from the wrath of
God through Him" (27) (Rom.5:9).
"And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned unto him as
righteousness. Now to the one who works, the reward is not reckoned as
grace, but as debt. But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him
who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness" (Rom.
What a significant coincidence it is that this doctrine of
justification by faith is given such prominence in the epistle to the
Romans, since Rome later became the seat of the papacy! It seems to be
written there as if intended as a strong and permanent protest against the
errors of the Roman Church.
Assurance of Salvation
The first consequence of the doctrine of penance (as well as the
doctrines of purgatory and indulgences) is that the Roman Catholic, though
baptized and confirmed, can never have that assurance of his salvation and
that sense of spiritually security which is such a blessing to the true
Christian. In proportion as he is spiritually sensitive, the person who
holds to a works religion knows that he has not suffered as much as his
sins deserve, and that he can never do as much as he should in order to be
worthy of salvation.
A dying Roman Catholic, after he has done all that he can do and after
the last rites have been given to him, is told that he still must go to
purgatory. There he will suffer unknown torture, with no assurance as to
how long it will continue, but with the assurance that if his relatives
pray for his soul, and pay with sufficient generosity to have candles lit
and have special Masses said for him, that his sufferings will be shortened
Oh what a contrast with all of that, is the death of the true believer
who has the assurance that he goes straight to heaven into the immediate
presence of Christ! (Phil. 1:23). What a marvelous blessing is the true
faith of the Christian, both in life and especially at the time of death!
The Council of Trent even pronounced a curse upon anyone who presumed
to say that he had assurance of salvation, or the the whole punishment for
sin is forgiven along with that sin. (28) Such assurance is pronounced a
delusion and a result of sinful pride. Tome keeps her subjects in constant
fear and insecurity. Even at death, after extreme unction has been
administered and after thousands of rosary prayers have been said "for the
repose of the soul", the priest still cannot give assurance of salvation.
The person is never "good enough" but must serve in purgatory prison to be
purified of venial sins before he can be admitted to the celestial city.
No one can be truly happy or truly at peace. And particularly in spiritual
matters, a state of doubt and uncertainty continues for one's whole life,
and right into the grave.
But God wants us to be saved, and according to the Bible the Holy
Spirit can give us the assurance that we have salvation when we have a
true, intimate relationship with the Son of God (I John 5:9-12). But in
Romanism, one must work hard for it and must pay dearly for it, and after
he has done all the the priest has prescribed, he still cannot know whether
he has it or not. And through it all, there stands the anathema of the
Council of Trent against all who affirm the certainty of their salvation.
Hence, there cannot truly be found anywhere a Roman Catholic, consistent to
what his church teaches, who enjoys the true assurance of eternal life.
It is obvious by even this brief glimpse into the doctrines of mortal
and venial sins, confession, penance, and purgatory, the the Roman Catholic
Church has constructed one of the most unbiblical doctrinal systems that
has ever been considered "Christian". The fear, anguish, and religious
bondage that such a system of "reward and punishment" creates, has
tormented millions of lives for centuries, and continues to prey on those
who are ignorant of the biblical way of salvation.
To merely call such a system "a cult", would be to throw it into the
vast category of religions and quasi-religions that are currently making
the rounds of our college campuses and city streets, snatching up many-an-
unsuspecting youth. No, the Roman Church is not a cult. It's an empire!
With its own ruler, its own laws, and its own subjects! The empire has no
borders it encompasses the globe with its eye on every person who does not
vow allegiance. It calls the members of other faiths "separated brethren"
(29) and has as its goal the eventual bringing together of everyone under
I know that many will not be convinced or moved by this article (or any
of the others) to make such a conclusion. They are impressed by what
they've heard about recent stirrings among the Catholics in the
"Charismatic renewal". Many evangelicals (especially charismatics) have
been thrilled by the reports of Catholics speaking in tongues, dancing in
the Spirit, having nights of joy and praise, even attending "charismatic
Mouths that used to speak out boldly against the Church of Rome have
been quieted by the times. It no longer is in vogue to speak of the pope
as "the anti-christ" (30) or the Catholic Church as the "whore of
Babylon". Now Protestants unwittingly believe that "our differences are
not so great". Ah, that is just what She wants us to think!
I've never completely understood why God led me to write these
articles. But it becomes more clear with each day of study, and each page
of research. Never has something so black and wicked, gotten away with
appearing so holy and mysteriously beautiful...for so long!
1] Venial - easily excused or forgiven; pardonable - American Heritage
2] A subject which we hope to cover in a future chronicle.
3] A church council that met between 1963-1965.
4] "Sunday obligation" can also be fulfilled by attending a Saturday
5] Which is only allowed once in a person's life - and if a person were to
die immediately after baptism, Rome says he will go "straight to
heaven." Otherwise, the only other conditions by which a Catholic may
be assured he will go directly to heaven immediately upon death, is to
die a "saint" ( a completely perfect and sanctified person), or to die a
martyr's death. All others must do some time in purgatory.
6] Baptism is also the only case where all sin is washed away, and both the
eternal and temporal punishments due to sin are canceled.
7] Absolution - release from punishment; acquittal; remission of sins
declared officially by a priest - Webster's Dictionary.
8] Primarily for use by those who are joining the Roman Catholic Church.
9] Instructions for Non-Catholics, p.93.
10] Although monthly confession is said to be more satisfactory.
11] Roman Catholicism, pps. 197-199 (from here on referred to as "R.C.").
12] The doctrine of purgatory rests on the assumption that while God
forgives sin, His justice nevertheless demands that the sinner must
suffer the full punishment due to him for his sin before he will be
allowed to enter heaven.
13] One of the seven sacraments also known as "anointing of the sick" or
"the last rites," and administered when a person is near death.
14] The Baltimore Catechism, p. 329.
15] The official title for confession to an authorized priest in a
confession box. It is called "auricular" because it is spoken
secretly, into the ear of the priests.
16] "R.C." p. 199.
17] "R.C." p. 203.
18] The seven sacraments are: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist,
Penance, Holy Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction.
19] The Baltimore Catechism, p. 300.
20] Indulgences are remissions of so many days or months or years of
punishment in purgatory - a subject which we will cover in depth in a
21] Instructions for Non-Catholics, p. 95.
22] "R.C." pps. 257-258.
23] Council of Trent, section 6.
24] The Catholic Almanac, pps. 269, 559.
25] "The Apostles Creed" published by the Knights of Columbus, pps. 18-19.
26] "You Shall Rise Again" published by the Knights of Columbus, p. 3.
27] See also: Eph. 2:8-10, Rom. 1:17, 3:21, 22, 28, 5:1, 18-19, 11:6, John
3:36, Gal. 2:21, 3:11.
28] "R.C." p. 267.
29] The term used by Vatican II to describe the members of Eastern
Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant churches.
30] Although the following people unhesitatingly did: Martin Luther, John
Bunyan, John Huss, John Wycliffe, John Calvin, William Tyndale, John
Knox, Thomas Becon, John Wesley, Samuel Cooper, John Cotton, and
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