The first seven Church Councils was summoned by an Emperor.
COUNCIL YEAR EMPORER PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL
Nicaea 325 Constantine Hosius, Bishop of Cordova
Constan'ple 381 Theodosius Meletius of Antioch
Ephesus 431 Theodosius II St. Cyril
Chalcedon 451 Marcian Marcian
Constan'ple II 553 Justinian Eutychus, Bishop of Constantinople
Constan'ple III 680 Constantine II Constantine II
Nicaea II 787 Constantine IV Legate of Pope
The pope did not preside at any one of the first seven Councils. In 431,
St. Cyril took the place of the pope, and not until the Second Council of
Nicaea was there an official legate of the pope presiding.
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