by Wesley P. Walters

As different as para-Christian groups or cults are from each

other, most have one thing in common: they hate the biblical

teaching of the Trinity. They want their God to be simplistic,

uncomplicated, and less complex than the world He created. They

want a God reduced to terms they can get their finite minds


Modern advances in science have shown that the created world is

an extremely complex mechanism. Those who work in nuclear physics

or molecular biology are continually discovering the complexity

of the world God has created.

In fact, some complex, seemingly contradictory data has yet to

be fitted into a rational system that explains the relationships.

A simple thing like "light" is known to move like "waves" yet

strike like "particles." Atomic physicists are still struggling

to put together a theory that can fully explain this apparent


Those who work in the complex mathematical equations of quantum

mechanics are told by their instructors that "If you think that

you really understand quantum mechanics and how it applies to

reality, that proves you do not understand it." One of the basic

theorems is that if the speed of a particle is known, then its

location can not be known, and the more accurately you know its

location, the less accurately you know its speed. This does not

seem very logical to the average person, but it works very well

in atomic physics, in which scientists get very close to the

essence of matter.

Thus, while scientists are continually learning more about how

complex and even apparently contradictory the world of created

reality is, cults that reject the complexity of the God who made

this reality are proliferating. They, along with Moslems and

modern Jews, taunt Christians, saying: "How can there be just one

God, and yet the Father be God, the Son be God and the Holy

Spirit be God? Is He the Son of Himself and the Father of both?"

Even though Christ Himself taught that the name [singular] of

God in which we baptize is Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Matthew

28:19), all cults falsely assert that the doctrine of the Trinity

is a teaching that grew out of fourth century paganism. So uni-

fied are the cults in this assertion that they appear to be using

the same erroneous Church history book and parroting one another.

The truth is that by the time of Christ, the first century A.D.,

the Jews themselves, on the basis of the Old Testament, were

coming to an understanding of the complexity of Yahweh.

The Teachings of The Targums

When the Jews returned from Babylonian captivity 450 years

before the birth of Jesus, they had adopted Aramaic as their

native language. Although it is a dialect of ancient Hebrew,

Aramaic is about as different from it as modern Italian is from

its classical Latin ancestor. Consequently, during the first and

early second centuries A.D., Aramaic translations of the Hebrew

Old Testament were made.

These translations, called Targums, were The Living Bibles of

their day, an interpretive paraphrase of Scripture. They help us

see how these first-century Jews understood their Old Testament.

One of the striking things these Targums show is that first-

century Jews had come to understand the phrase "the Word of God"

as referring to a divine entity within God Himself, yet distin-

guishable at times from God. J.W. Etheridge, in the introduction

to his translations of the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, has

given us a number of examples of this Jewish understanding of the

term, "the Word" (Aramaic: Memra).

In Genesis 18:1, where the Hebrew Bible says Yahweh (Jehovah)

appeared to Abraham, the Targum says, "The Word of the Lord

appeared to Abraham." Further on, where the Hebrew reports

"Yahweh rained down upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and

fire from Yahweh out of heaven," the Targum states that "the Word

of the Lord sent down upon them sulphur and fire from the

presence of the Lord out of heaven." (Genesis 19:24)

In Genesis 16, when Hagar sees "the Angel of the Lord," the

Targum says she saw "the Word of the Lord." After seeing this

"Word" (Memra) she says, "Here has been revealed the glory of the

Shekineh of the Lord." Then, according to the Jerusalem Targum,

"Hagar returned thanks and prayed in the name of the Word of the

Lord, who had appeared to her." Thus the Word not only is regard-

ed as the presence of deity, but is in some manner personally

distinguishable from the Lord.

In Genesis 28:20 the Targum of Onkelos paraphrases Jacob's vow,

"If God will be with me... then Yahweh will be my God" with the

words, "If the Word of the Lord will be my help... the Word of

the Lord shall be my God." Again, the Angel of Yahweh who spoke

to Moses at the burning bush (Exodus 3:14) is designated by the

Jerusalem Targum as "the Word of the Lord."

The distinct personality of this Divine Word is seen pointedly

in Jonathan's Targum of Isaiah 63:7-10. There, where the Hebrew

text speaks of Yahweh being their Savior, the Targum reads, "the

Word (Memra) was their Redeemer." (vs. 8) When the Israelites

continued to disobey, then "His Word (Memra) became their enemy,

and fought against them" -- an action ascribed to Yahweh in the

Hebrew text. Again in Isaiah 45:22 the Targum of Jonathan ex-

horts, "Look unto My Word and be saved."

While this personalizing of the Word was being expressed in

Palestine in the Targums of Jesus' day, Philo, an Egyptian Jew

and contemporary of Jesus, was expressing similar thoughts in

even more distinct words. In his essay "On the Creation," Philo

states that man was not made in the image of some creature, but

in the image of God's own uncreated Word. He wrote: "for the

Creator, we know, employed for its making no pattern taken from

among created things, but solely, as I have said, His own Word."

Philo continues: "Man was made a likeness and imitation of the

Word, when the Divine Breath was breathed into his face. ("On the

Creation," XLVIII: 139, Loeb Edition I, pp. 110-111)

In his work on Noah, Philo again expresses the teaching that man

is made by "the First Cause" (that is, God) in the image of "the

Eternal Word:" "Our great Moses likened the fashion of the rea-

sonable soul to no created thing, but averred it to be a genuine

coinage of that dread Spirit, the Divine and Invisible One,

signed and impressed by the seal of God, the stamp of which is

the Eternal Word."

He continues: " has been made after the Image of God

(Genesis 1:27), not however after the image of anything

created... man's soul having been made after the image of the

Archetype, the Word of the First Cause." ("Noah's Work as a

Planter," I:18-20, Loeb III, pp. 222-223)

Thus, the eternal Word is in some sense distinguishable from

God, and yet at the same time is, like God, uncreated, rational

and the bearer of the divine image. This comes very close to the

teaching of the New Testament that the Word was distinguishable

from God, and yet was God. As John 1:1 expresses it, "In the

beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word

was God." It also appears similar to Paul's teaching that the Son

is "the image of the invisible God" (Colossians 1:15); and the

writer of Hebrews statement that the Son "is the exact represen-

tation of His being." (Hebrews 1:3)

Philo, however, goes further. He says that God is the king and

shepherd of all creation, but rules and controls it through his

eternally existing Word, whom Philo calls God's "First-born Son."

His "hallowed flock" of created things God directs by his divine

laws, setting over it His true Word and first-born son, who shall

take upon Him its government like some viceroy of a great king.

("On Husbandry," I:51, Loeb III, pp. 134-135)

Philo has God expressing Himself in this manner: "I alone...

sustained the Universe to rest firm and sure upon the Mighty

Word, who is My viceroy." ("On Dreams," I:241, Loeb V, pp. 424-


Therefore this eternal Word, God's first-born Son, is the up-

holder of the whole creation, "the everlasting Word of the eter-

nal God is the very sure and staunch prop of the Whole. He it is,

who extending Himself from the midst to its utmost bounds...

keeps up through all its length Nature's unvanquished course,

combining and compacting all its parts. For the Father who begat

Him constituted His Word such a Bond of the Universe as nothing

can break." ("Noah's Work as a Planter," I:8-9, Loeb III, pp.


This reflects the same thought that Paul expressed about the Son

as being the one "in whom all things hold together." (Colossians

1:17) It also reminds also reminds us of Hebrews 1:3, which

depicts the Son as "sustaining all things by his powerful Word."

Philo continues his discussion of the Word by maintaining that

to those incapable of seeing the supreme cause, God Himself, He

appears to them in the form of His Angel, the Word: "For just as

those who are unable to see the sun itself, see the gleam of the

parahelion and take it for the sun, and take the halo round the

moon for that luminary itself, so some regard the image of God,

His Angel, the Word, as His very self." ("On Dreams," I:239, Loeb

V, pp. 422-423) This sounds very similar to the teaching that the

Son is "the radiance (or outshining) of God's glory" (Hebrews

1:3), the only part of God's nature that people are allowed to

see. This is true because "no one has ever seen God," but "the

only begotten God... He has made Him known." (John 1:18) Thus,

Jesus, the Son, can say, "Anyone who has seen me has seen the

Father." (John 14:9)

Philo further explained that God, being light, is "the archetype

of every other light." As such He is "prior to and high above

every archetype." Thus He holds the position of "a model of a

model," that is, He is the model for His Word, which Word becomes

the model for creation. The Word, therefore, contains all the

qualities of God. As Philo expressed it, "the model or pattern

was the Word which contained all His fullness -- light, in fact."

("On Dreams," I:75, Loeb V, pp. 336-337) Paul expressed a similar

thought when he wrote that in the Son all God's fullness dwells.

(Colossians 1:19; 2:9)

To Philo, therefore, the Word of God is the eternal, uncreated

Word containing all the fullness of God and bearing His image.

That divine image which the Word bears is the image in which man

was created. The Word is further the sustainer, upholder and

ruler of the world, carrying on the governing of all things, as

God's viceroy, and containing all God's fullness.

While the Word is not a created thing and carries on all the

functions of God, Philo is clear that there are not two gods --

although he does not attempt to explain how this can be. Philo's

teaching is, therefore, very close to the biblical doctrine of

the Trinity. Philo reached his conclusions without the aid of the

New Testament and certainly without deriving his ideas from pagan

notions of deity. The Old Testament teaching that the Angel of

Yahweh is really the presence of Yahweh Himself seems to have

strongly influenced Philo's ideas.

To relegate the doctrine of the Trinity, therefore, to a fourth-

century adaptation of paganism is to ignore the conclusions that

several Jewish theologians and teachers had reached four cen-

turies earlier, from God's revelations given to Israel before the

time of the coming of Christ. At the very time that the Word was

becoming flesh (John 1:1, 14), Jewish writers were already begin-

ning to see that God's Word could in some way be distinguished

from God the Father Himself, yet have all the fullness of God

contained in Him.

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