The GOSPEL According to PAULK: A Critique of "Kingdom Theology"
If the content of my writing has been offensive to anyone - especially if they
believed me to be in error - I should have been approached for reconciliation
or correction according to Matthew 5:23,23. I have never refused to engage in
dialogue with anyone who has sought to talk with me about my theological
by Robert M. Bowman, Jr. with Craig S. Hawkins and Dan R. Schlesinger
The above statement was written by Bishop Earl Paulk and appeared in his
church newspaper, Thy Kingdom Come, in November 1987. In four phone
conversations in February 1988 with staff members of Paulk's church,
researchers from Christian Research Institute expressed their desire to engage
in dialogue with him concerning his theological views.  The last three of
these conversations were with Tricia Weeks, Publication Editor and Public
Relations officer for Bishop Paulk. Mrs. Weeks attempted to answer some of the
researchers' questions and sent some written materials, but unanswered
questions remained. Bishop Paulk has chosen not to dialogue. His new posture
is well expressed in his February 1988 publication, Twenty Questions on Kingdom
Teaching: "I prefer pouring my life into ministry to people rather than gearing
my thoughts toward answering challenges from those who enjoy theological
Our idea of an enjoyable theological debate is a stimulating discussion
among Christian friends of such issues as predestination and election or the
nature of the Millennium. Such issues, however, are not the cause for concern
in this case. The issues of controversy in Paulk's teaching have to do with
such fundamental matters as the nature of God, man, Christ, and salvation.
They are matters so serious that those who teach wrong doctrines about them
must be regarded as false teachers or heretics.
Who is Bishop Paulk, and why is he the focus of such controversy? Paulk is
the senior pastor of Chapel Hill Harvester Church in Atlanta, Georgia, a church
of over 10,000 members. He is a bishop in the International Communion of
Charismatic Churches (ICCC), a recently formed denomination which emphasizes
the charisma (gifts of the Spirit) and traditional liturgy. 
Paulk is also the best known and most prolific writer (through Paulk's
publishing house, K Dimension Publishers) of "kingdom theology," sometimes
called "kingdom now." This controversial movement has been the subject of a
number of highly critical articles and conference statements, many of them
labeling it heretical. 
Paulk is widely regarded as a leader by those who hold to "kingdom
theology" hereafter "KT"). His position in the movement is exemplified by the
fact that in 1990 his church is scheduled to host an ICCC-sponsored World
Congress on the Kingdom of God.  In this two-part article, then, we shall
be examining not only the teachings of Earl Paulk, but also those of the fast-
growing and controversial movement he represents.
HERETICAL RED HERRINGS
Almost all of what has been written in criticism of KT has focused on
relatively minor doctrinal issues and denounced as heretical doctrines which
at worst are merely controversial and mistaken. In fact, KT has been
criticized for teaching doctrines which are not at all unique to the KT
movement, which have been believed by Christians of many traditions for
centuries. These irrelevant criticisms (or "red herrings") have,
understandably, been rejected by KT leaders such as Earl Paulk as divisive to
the body of Christ.
In this study we wish to emphasize the difference between essentials of
sound, orthodox Christian teaching, and those doctrinal issues on which
Christians are free to disagree without needing to break fellowship. A
teaching is truly heretical only if it errs by denying one or more of the
essentials. It is aberrational, or aberrant, if it compromises or confuses the
essentials, whatever it may teach on nonessentials. 
It is legitimate for critics of KT to voice their disagreement with it on
matters of nonessentials. It is also legitimate for them to identify any
serious errors which they may detect in its teaching on the essentials as
either aberrant or heretical. But it is unfortunate when they confuse the two
kinds of criticism.
Nonheretical though controversial aspects of the KT teaching include the
* Identifying the church as the Israel of God, heir to the promises made
originally to Israel;
* Interpreting the book of Revelation symbolically;
* Questioning or denying pretribulational premillennialism;
* Believing that certain things must take place in the church before Christ
* Emphasizing the kingdom of God as a present reality;
* Regarding the church as a manifestation of the kingdom of God;
* Promoting unity among Christians of different traditions.
Some of these teachings will be contrary to the doctrines of
dispensationalism, a theological system developed in the nineteenth century
which insists on a "literal" method of biblical interpretation, teaches that
the church and Israel are two separate covenant peoples of God, and looks for
an any-moment rapture of the church before Christ's return, when He will set
up His Millennial kingdom on the earth.  However, the issues raised here
are ones on which Christians can have legitimate disagreements. Bishop
Paulk's departure from dispensationalist doctrine, right or wrong, is not
heretical or unorthodox. Indeed, it is not even unusual; from the standpoint
of church history dispensationalism is the novel position (though, since
Scripture is the only infallible authority in doctrine, the recent origin of
dispensationalism does not prove it false). Therefore, it is a serious
mistake to argue that KT is heretical on the basis of its views on these
It is also a mistake to regard KT with suspicion because of its emphasis
on the kingdom of God as a present reality, or on the church as an agent of
the kingdom in the world. Christ is king over all the earth now (Matt.28:19-
20; Heb.1:2-3; Eph.1:20-22; Col.1:13; etc.), and the church in its mission is
advancing the cause of Christ's kingdom (Matt.28:19-20; Rom.14:17-18; etc.).
This is true even if one holds that the Millennium will be a unique and more
complete manifestation of the kingdom of God on the earth, as is held by
Nor is it wrong to believe that Christians should seek to bring godly
influence to bear in political and social institutions. Responsible
Christians of all centuries have sought to apply their Christian faith to all
spheres of life. If KT is to be criticized in this area at all, it should be
on the basis of the manner in which godly influence in the public arena is
sought, or of the doctrinal foundation upon which that influence is to be
If it is wrong to condemn KT on the basis of controversial teachings which
do not affect the essentials of the faith, it is also wrong to reject all
criticisms of KT as inherently divisive and improper. Earl Paulk scathingly
dismisses all who would evaluate KT teachings as "pseudo-protectors of the
Church."  His 1987 book THAT THE WORLD MAY KNOW repeatedly criticizes all
those who seek to evaluate the biblical soundness of Christian ministries:
At times it seems that voices warning of deception become the seducers
themselves. They quote Scripture, write Christian books, speak on
Christian radio and television programs, and their warnings confuse many
Christians seeking truth in God's Word. They target warnings of error
toward some of the most anointed, fruitful ministries in the Church today.
In a letter responding to a critique of KT by William Griffin, Paulk
Calling ministers "heretics" and "false prophets" cannot be tolerated, and
certainly will not solve any problems of disagreement. Such labeling is
totally irresponsible coming from men and women of God. 
While we agree that calling ORTHODOX ministers heretics and false prophets
is irresponsible, we must insist that this does not invalidate identifying
truly heretical ministers as such. The question here is not whether there are
false prophets outside the church; Paulk would agree to that. The point of
contention is whether there are false teachers-heretics-within the orthodox
Christian community. the implication of the statement cited above, along with
a host of similar statements in Paulk's books, is that such a suggestion is
Yet, from a biblical perspective, the possibility of heretics within the
orthodox community is sadly, undeniable. The Bible contains numerous warnings
to the church to be on the watch for such false teachers (e.g., Acts 20:30;
Rom.16:17; 2Cor.11:4-5, 13-15; Gal.1:6-9; 2Thess.2:1-2; 1Tim.4:1; 2Tim.2:17-
18; 4:14-15; Tit.3:10-11; 2Pet.2:1; 1John 4:1-2). Therefore, while it is
wrong to label orthodox ministers as heretics, it is equally irresponsible to
fail to identify heretics as such whether they represent themselves as
Mormons, Catholics, Pentecostals, or Baptists. A heretic is simply someone
who claims to be a Christian teacher but who teaches heretical doctrine,
which, as we have said, is doctrine contrary to the essentials of Christian
Paulk has put forth a number of arguments to discredit theological
critiques of KT. Of these objections, two stand out: the appeal to authority,
and the charge of bad fruit.
"WHERE'S YOUR COVERING?"
Repeatedly in THAT THE WORLD MAY KNOW, Paulk criticizes critics of KT for
not having the proper spiritual authority and calling from God "to bring
admonishment to ministries." 
Pseudo-protectors must answer the question, "Under whose authority do your
preach, teach and write?"...When people outside of God's structure of
authority move as self-appointed judges or critics of ministries, they not
only cause confusion in the body of Christ, but they open themselves to
God's judgment....Correction of senior pastors over major ministries is
proper only by designated spiritual elders to the general Church. 
In more than one place Paulk refers to this authority the believer needs
to be under as one's "covering."  The concept here is of a chain of
command in the church in which authority flows strictly from the top down,
protecting those below with a "covering" from above. Those who are below are
not in a position to question the teaching of those who are above them in the
chain of command. The account in the Gospels of the centurion who expressed
faith in Jesus' authority to heal his servant without having to be physically
present (Matt.8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10;) is typically cited as illustrative of this
There are a number of problems with this theory. First, it goes far
beyond anything the Bible says about submission to church authority, which has
to do with Christian conduct and ministry activities, not with doctrine. The
prooftext passage about the centurion relates to Christ's authority, either
over angels or simply over nature, but certainly has nothing to do with a
hierarchical authority structure in the church.
Second, saying that we must submit to church authorities does not solve
for us the problem of deciding who is, after all, in charge. Paulk holds to
the view that only bishops ("spiritual elders to the general Church') have
such authority. Even granting that claim for the sake of argument, which
bishops are in charge? The Roman Catholic Bishops? The Eastern Orthodox
bishops? The ICCC bishops? The Mormon bishops? Since Christians are faced
with competing and conflicting claims to episcopal (or bishopric) authority,
they have no recourse but to examine the claims of any and all such bishops,
including Bishop Paulk, on the basis of scripture.
Third, the covering doctrine leaves no room for challenges of false
doctrine taught by the top levels of the church. If Martin Luther, for
example, had subscribed to Paulk's chain of command view of church authority,
he could not in good conscience have challenged the bishop of Rome on the
matter of indulgences and other abuses.
We conclude, then, that Paulk's dismissal of all criticisms of KT because
the critics are not called to that ministry or do not have the proper
authority is invalid. Certainly there are some people involved in the
ministry of discerning cultic and heretical doctrine who are not truly
discerning and who are causing division to the body of Christ, but this is
simply not true of all those who are critical of KT.
"CHECK THE FRUIT"
The other major objection Paulk raises to critiques of KT is that such
criticisms always produce bad fruit, whereas, he claims, KT teaching produces
Books written on exposing ministries believed to be counterfeits hardly
bring edification to Christians. What is the fruit of such probing?
Suspicion. Fear. Doubt. Insecurity and mistrust of spiritual
leadership. Could the source of teaching producing this fruit be from
God?... Warnings against certain ministries have little effect on
Christians who have experienced God's miraculous, anointed power and love
in churches consistently teaching principles of the Kingdom of
God...Causing divisions among believers is clearly "seduction" of
These warnings of bad fruit resulting from criticism against ministries
presuppose the very thing in question, namely, whether or not the fruit of
these ministries is good fruit. There is nothing wrong with "suspicion" or
"doubt" or "mistrust" directed against heretical or aberrant ministries! If
the ministries under criticism are orthodox, on the other hand, Paulk's
Part of the problem here is that Paulk seems to exclude doctrine as part
of the "fruit" that must be tested. Such exclusion is unbiblical. The
apostle John wrote that claims to the anointing of the Spirit should be tested
by doctrine (1John 4:1-2). Moses warned that prophets whose predictions held
true or who performed miracles should be rejected if they promoted a doctrine
of different gods (Deut. 13:1-3).
Paulk also treats the divisions that result from criticism of ministries
as the fault of the critics. This is true if the ministries are sound, but if
they are not, the fault lies with the heretical or aberrant ministries, not
with the critics. The apostle Paul taught that it was those who bring
"doctrine contrary to what you have been taught" who create "dissensions," not
those who urge Christians to "avoid them" (Rom. 16:17).
The claim that followers of KT teaching are experiencing "power" and
"love" does little of itself to substantiate its orthodoxy. Nearly every
heretical movement in Christian history has offered its followers such
experiences. Discernment, from a biblical perspective, involves sorting out
such claims on the basis of their adherence to the truth of God's word. If KT
is orthodox, the power and love its followers experience is evidence that the
movement is not merely "dead orthodoxy." intellectual assent to the truth
apart from real faith. If, on the other hand, KT turns out to be less than
orthodox, then, like the herectical movements before it, the experiences of
its followers must be regarded as originating from a source other than the
FROM LATTER-RAIN TO KINGDOM NOW
To understand what KT is and why it is so important, it necessary to
examine its historical development. KT did not arise in a vacuum, but is an
outgrowth of a larger and somewhat diverse Pentecostal tradition known as the
"The Latter-Rain" (LR) movement. This assertion might be challenged by some,
and so will require some explanation and defense.
The term "later rain" (derived from James 5:7 and other biblical passages)
has been used throughout the twentieth century by Pentecostals to refer to a
final outpouring of the Holy Spirit to occur shortly before Christ's return,
generally accompanied by specific supernatural manifestations. Originally it
was used simply of the Pentecostal movement itself; and some Pentecostals
still use the term in that sense. 
However, the term is also frequently used to refer to a movement which
arose within Pentecostalism in the late 1940's. This movement originated in
revival meetings held in 1948 by the Sharon Orphanage and Schools in North
Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada, which was administered by Herrick Holt and
George and Ern Hawtin. This revivalist movement soon spread throughout the
Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada. By late 1949 the Assemblies of God found it
necessary in its General Council to denounce the New Order of the Latter Rain,
as it had come to be known. 
FRANKLIN HALL AND WILLIAM BRANHAM
The reason why the Assemblies of God took this action can best be seen in
examining the teachings of the two men whose ideas brought about the 1948
movement: Franklin Hall and William Branham. As has been documented
elsewhere, both of these men taught heretical versions of Christianity which
combined Pentecostalism with occultism. 
Franklin Hall came into prominence in 1946 with his book ATOMIC POWER WITH
GOD THROUGH FASTING AND PRAYER. Hall encouraged long fasts, with one disciple
fasting for a reported 83 days. This "fasting message" was picked up by a
number of now famous Pentecostal evangelists, including Oral Roberts. Hall,
who developed his views using astrology and other pseudoscientific concepts,
also claimed that men could attain immortality through UFOs and through
applying a biblical "formula for weightlessness."
William Branham, also influenced by Hall, is generally credited by
Pentecostal historians with leading the way, along with Oral Roberts, in
bringing the "healing message" into Pentecostalism. According to this
"message," Christians may not only pray for miracles of healing today, but may
expect them automatically through faith. Branham taught a from of the Oneness
doctrine, according to which Jesus was in some sense the Father and the Son
 (though he avoided the terms "Oneness" and "Jesus only"), and adamantly
condemned the Trinity as a doctrine from the devil. He also taught the
doctrine of the "serpent seed," according to which Eve's sin in Eden was
having sex with the serpent, resulting in a race of people living to this day
whose biological father is Satan. Branham also claimed to be the Prophet to
the "Laodicean" age, the supposed final period of church history. Branham's
influence extended widely through his endorsement by the Full Gospel Business
Men's Fellowship International, a Pentecostal ministry which, though not
overtly LR, has often promoted LR teachers.
The Pentecostals at Sharon Orphanage and Schools had read Hall's ATOMIC
POWER and attended Branham's healing crusades, and were convinced that through
these men they had learned of truths which God was "restoring" to the church
in that day. Through the Sharon revivals the teachings of Hall and Branham
quickly spread and took root in a number of ministries in North America. Some
of the more embarrassing or peculiar theories of Hall and Branham - Hall's
astrological references, Branham's "serpent's seed" theory, etc. - were weeded
out, and most of the LR Pentecostals retained their belief in the Trinity
(though a significant portion of the LR was and is either Oneness or leans in
that direction). However, the basic theological system of LR teaching was
developed directly from combining the distinctive emphases of Hall and
The theological system of the LR included the following elements:
The doctrine that God has been progressively restoring truths to the
Church since the Reformation. These "restored" truths usually include
justification by faith (Martin Luther), water baptism by immersion (the
Anabaptists), sanctification (John Wesley), divine healing (A.B. Simpson, who
in 1881 founded a movement which became the Christian and Missionary
Alliance), Spirit baptism (the Azusa Street revival of 1906), followed by the
various "restored" truths (including those listed below) emerging from the
IMMORTALIZATION OF THE CHURCH.
The belief that the church will attain to immortality before Christ's
return as a necessary aspect of its perfection and testimony to the world.
While some in the LR tradition have dropped this teaching, for many it is key.
The belief that faith is a force that enables the believer (or, for some,
the prophet, such as Branham) to create new realities out of nothing, just as
God created the world out of nothing.
DISTINCTIVE SPIRITUAL DISCIPLINES.
Emphasized in the LR are the following disciplines or activities:
(1) Deliverance - the exorcism of demons from believers, often as a necessary
step in their overcoming sinful habits of the flesh;
(2) Fasting - going without food for extended periods of time in order to
attain supernatural power over the body;
(3) Laying on of hands - a ritual expressing the power of the "anointed"
church leaders over the faithful; and
(4) Praise - an unrestrained form of worship calling upon God to perfect the
church. (The place of praise in LR teaching was secured by George Warnock
shortly after the 1948 revivals. Warnock was at time a secretary to Ern
Baxter, who in turn had been William Branham's secretary.)
UNITY OF THE CHURCH.
The doctrine that the church, or (usually) a small remnant of the church,
will attain mature unity of faith before Christ returns.
The belief that the church today has all five offices of Ephesians 4:11,
including apostles and prophets, through whom the church receives new
doctrinal revelations and overall direction. Church unity comes through
submission to the elders and through them to the fivefold ministry.
CHILDREN OF THE LATTER-RAIN
MANIFEST SONS OF GOD.
Among the many LR ministries which developed in the months following the
LR revivals were several which subscribed to a set of doctrines which came to
be known as Manifest Sons of God (MSG). Based on Hall's teachings concerning
immortalization, MSG taught that the "manifestation of the sons of God" spoken
of in Romans 8:19 was to occur as a result of the final shower of the Latter
Rain just prior to Christ's return. These "sons of God" would be drawn from
a remnant of the church, and would be individual extensions of the Incarnation
or replicas of Christ, who was regarded as the "Pattern Son." Some, though
not all, MSG teachers either leaned toward or fully embraced some form of
Oneness or modalism (as a similar heresy in the early church is known) in
which the Father became the Son, is becoming the church. Prominent MSG
teachers from the early 1950's into the early 1980's included Bill Britton and
John Robert Stevens; the latter was the founder of the Church of the Living
Word, also know as the Walk. 
Two other movements stemming from the LR ought to be noted. The first is
the "Shepherding" or "discipleship" movement.  Shepherding was a
development in 1970 of the LR emphasis on the need for submission to spiritual
leaders, and originated from the ministry of five teachers in the Fort
Lauderdale area - Ern Baxter (Branham's former secretary,) Don Basham, Bob
Mumford, Derek Prince, and Charles Simpson.
By the late 1970s the movement was receiving a great deal of bad press
both within and outside the church. In the mid 1980s the terms "shepherding"
and discipleship," along with some admitted abuses, were dropped by almost
everyone connected with the teaching. However, many of the teachers of
Shepherding, such as Bob Mumford, resolutely maintain the validity of the
movement's basic principles  and seek to revive them in a new setting and
under a new name (such as "covenant life" or "church life"). One organization
which continued to practice Shepherding in some form in the 1980s was
Maranatha Campus Ministries (MCM), founded by Bob Weiner. MCM was evaluated
by a committee of cult researchers in 1983 and 1984 and found to be plagued
with abuses in its exercise of authority. 
The other offspring movement of the LR was the "Positive Confession"
(PC) or "word-faith" teaching, popularly known by the nickname "name it and
claim it." This movement developed from an application of the basic
theological system of E.W. Kenyon (who died about the same time as the LR
movement was being born) to the LR concerns of healing and deliverance (as
well as material prosperity). Kenyon, like Branham, taught that faith was a
force which could be harnessed by anyone who employed its principles. By such
faith God Himself had created the universe, and Jesus had overcome the devil
after "dying spiritually" and going to hell, resulting in Jesus being "born
again" as the "firstfruit" of a new species of humanity. According to the PC
teaching, this new humanity has recovered its status as "little gods."
Prominent teachers of PC (with some variations in each case) include such
popular evangelists as Kenneth Copeland, Kenneth Hagin, Charles Capps, and
Robert Tilton.  The dependence of this movement on the LR, which is
evident from their theological affinities, is illustrated by Kenneth Hagin's
acknowledgement of Branham as a "prophet." 
THE KINGDOM MESSAGE
The "kingdom" message, or KT teaching, is essentially a synthesis of the
various strands of LR teaching into a systematic doctrine focused around the
concept of the "kingdom." The KT doctrine developed in the early 1980s as
Pentecostals with no apparent direct ties to Hall or Branham sought to put
forth a more comprehensive message incorporating all of the recently
"restored" truths. As was the case with the MSG, Shepherding, and PC
movements, no one individual appears to be solely responsible for the rise of
KT, although certain individuals stand out - for example, Thomas F. Reid,
Larry Lea, John Gimenez, and especially Earl Paulk.
All of the major themes of the LR - restorationism, immortalization of the
church, healing, deliverance, fasting, laying on of hands, praise, unity of
the church, and the fivefold ministry - are found in KT teaching. The MSG
doctrine of the church as the ongoing Incarnation, the Shepherding theme of
submission to one's "covering," and the PC emphasis on faith, prosperity, and
Christians as "little gods," all find developed expression in KT.
The KT movement has particularly close affinity with the PC doctrine. In
fact, it might be described as teaching a corporatization of Positive
Confession. That is, KT takes the doctrines of PC, which focused on the
individual, and applies them to the church as a corporate body. Whereas PC
teaches that individual Christians should prosper, KT teaches that the church
should prosper. In PC the believer is to "take dominion" over his personal
life by exercising his godhood; in KT the church is to "take dominion" over
human institutions by acting as the ongoing Incarnation in the world.
IT is this concept of "dominion" applied on the institutional level, in
fact, which appears to be the major new ingredient in the KT synthesis. The
origin of this facet of KT appears to be the teaching of another movement
emphasizing the concept of "dominion," called Reconstructionism. Because this
movement is often discussed alongside KT with little or no distinction between
the two, something needs to be said about it.
RECONSTRUCTIONISM AND KINGDOM THEOLOGY
There are a least two major movements in contemporary American
Christianity known by the general name of "dominion theology." KT is one of
these; the other is better known as Reconstructionism. The latter movement,
which arose within Reformed or Calvinistic Christianity, teaches the doctrine
known as theonomy, according to which modern nations are responsible to God to
enforce the civil sanctions of the Mosaic Law. Reconstructionists also
generally teach postmillennialism, the view that the church will transform the
world through evangelism, leading to a long age of earthly peace and
prosperity before Christ returns. Thus, the theological roots of
Reconstructionists and LR Pentecostals.
Most Reconstructionists, though, appear to resist being linked in any
direct way with KT. It is unfortunate that almost every critique of KT has
treated KT and Reconstructionism as two strands of the same teaching. While
there is some overlap of terminology, ideas, and activities, the two movements
are largely distinct. 
EARL PAULK AND THE KINGDOM
In his books Earl Paulk consistently praises the leading teachers of the
movements emerging from the LR and takes a position of one building on their
contributions. Oral Roberts, Kenneth Copeland and Kenneth Hagin are among the
specific ministers whom Paulk defends as "anointed" messengers - in the case
of Roberts, an "apostle" - to the church. 
It is true that Paulk attempts to dissociate himself somewhat from certain
labels of LR doctrines which have suffered from "bad press." So, for
instance, he rejects the "name it and claim it" label, affirming that he does
not hold to that "extreme" view, and urges his readers to forget about the
"theory" of MSG. However, he clearly adheres to the substance of both PC and
MSG, as well as Shepherding, though wanting to distance himself from the
"abuses" of these views.  Any differences between Paulk's teaching and
those of the MSG, Shepherding, and PC movements appear to be refinements due
to synthesis, much as the LR of the 1950s adopted Franklin Hall and William
Branham's "restored truths" while refining out the more bizarre and
The KT of Earl Paulk, then, is a system of doctrine developed directly out
of the LR movement with some possible influence (of a nonheretical sort) by
Reconstructionism. A direct line of theological influence (and not mere
"association") can therefore be traced from the teachings of Franklin Hall and
William Branham, both of whom were unquestionably heretics, to the teachings
of Earl Paulk.
In Part II of this article we will set out in detail the theology of Earl
Paulk with extensive documentation, leaving no doubt concerning the nature of
Paulk's doctrine. We shall then offer a biblical critique of KT as found in
the representative writings of Bishop Paulk.
1] Earl Paulk, "Paulk Answers," Thy Kingdom Come, Nov. 1987, 1.
2] Telephone calls from Robert Bowman, Jr. (RMB) to Bishop Paulk's secretary
on Feb. 15, 1988; from RMB and Craig S. Hawkins to Tricia Weeks on Feb.
16; and from RMB to Tricia Weeks on Feb. 18 and 26.
3] Earl Paulk, Twenty Questions on Kingdom Teaching, advance prepublication
copy (Atlanta: K Dimension Publishers, Feb. 1988), n.p. under Question
4] "World Congress on the Kingdom of God to be held in 1990," Thy Kingdom
Come, July 1987, 1.
5] E.g., "A Summary of Some Kingdom Now Doctrines which Differ from the
Teaching of the Assemblies of God (Adopted as a white paper by the 1987
General Presbytery)," Aug. 3-5, 1987; William A. Griffin, "Kingdom Now:
New Hope or New Heresy:", presented to the Society for Pentecostal
Studies, Nov. 12-14, 1987; Albert James Dager, "Kingdom Theology," Parts
I,II, and III, Media Spotlight, Vol. 7, Nos. 2, 3; Vol. 8, No. 1 (1986-
6] "World Congress," 1.
7] For an example of how such distinctions are applied, see Robert M. Bowman,
Jr., "Ye Are Gods? Orthodox and Heretical Views on the Deification of
Man," Christian Research Journal 9 (Winter/Spring 1987), 18-22.
8] The standard primer on dispenstionalism is C.C. Ryrie, Dispenstionalism
Today (Chicago: Moody Press, 1965). Two responsible critiques are
Clarence Bass, Backgrounds to Dispensationalism (Grand Rapids: Baker Book
House, 1960), and Daniel P. Fuller, Gospel and Law: Contrast or Continuum?
(Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1980).
9] Earl Paulk, That the World May Know (Atlanta: K Dimension Publishers,
1987), 10-15 (hereafter World).
10] World, 117.
11] Undated letter (written in Nov. 1987) from Earl Paulk to William Griffin,
12] World, 3.
13] World, 10, 70, 121.
14] E.g., World, 3, 11.
15] World, 11.
16] World, 74, 79, 122; see also 70, 118.
17] E.g., Vinson Synan, In the Later Days: The Outpouring of the Holy Spirit
in the Twentieth Century (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant books, 1984), 5-7.
18] For accounts of these events from various perspectives, see Richard Riss,
"The Latter Rain Movement of 1948," Pneuma: The Journal of the Society of
Pentecostal Studies 4 (Spring 1982): 32-45; L. Thomas Holdcroft, "The New
Order of the Latter Rain," Pneuma 2 (Fall 1980): 46-60; and William W.
Menzies, Anointed to Serve: The Story of the assemblies of God
(Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1971), 321-25.
19] The information in this section is taken largely from Albert James Dager
"Kingdom Theology, Part I," Media Spotlight 7 (April-June 1986): 17-21,
who also documents the connection between these men and the Latter-Rain
movement; and Eric Pement, "William Branham: An American Legend?"
Cornerstone 81 (1987): 14-17 (on which see this writer's corrective letter
Cornerstone 82 ).
20] See Robert M. Bowman, Jr., "Oneness Pentecostalism and the Trinity: A
Biblical Critique," Forward 8 (Fall 1985): 22-27.
21] See Todd Ehrenborg, "The Church of the Living Word," in Walter Martin
(ed.), The New Cults (Santa Ana: Vision House, 1980), 269-96.
22] See, e.g., "Christian - Who Is Your Covering? A Christian Looks at the
Shepherding Movement," Personal Freedom Outreach Newsletter 3 (April-June
1983); and The Discipleship and Submission Movement, a report adopted by
the Assemblies of God General Presbytery, August 17, 1976 (Springfield,
MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1976), available from CRI.
23] See Bert Ghezzi, "Bob Mumford: After Discipleship," Charisma & Christian
Life, August 1987, 20-27.
24] See "A Statement of Evaluation Regarding Maranatha Campus Ministries/-
Marantha Christian Ministries/Marantha Christian Church," by James
Bjornstad, Steve Cannon, Ronald Enroth, Karen Hoyt, Gordon Lewis, and
Brian Onken (Aug. 1984), available from CRI (order #DM-035).
25] See Robert M. Bowman, Jr., "Positive Confession and the 'Faith' Teaching,"
CRI statement DP-075, for an overview and list of materials available on
26] Kenneth E. Hagin, Ministry of a Prophet (Tulsa: Faith Library
Publications, 1979), 8, cited in Pement, 16.
27] See the article on Reconstructionism on p. 22 of this issue of the JOURNAL
(Winter/Spring 1988). For an example of Reconstructionist attitudes
towards the KT movement, see Gary DeMar and Peter Leithart, The Reduction
of Christianity: Dave Hunt's Theology of Cultural Surrender (Fort Worth,
TX: Dominion Press, 1988), xiv (n. 5), 76, 82, 166, 335-36.
28] E.g., World, 12-14, 43, 101, 150, 164,; Ultimate Kingdom (Atlanta: K
Dimension Publishers, 1986), 79.
29] World, 149; Held in the Heavens Until (Atlanta: K Dimension Publishers,
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