Chapters 19 and 20 cover the judgment of Egypt. Civil war, a period of internal strife, plagued Egypt as a result of the Assyrian invasion. This time of decline and disintegration of Egypt, predicted in chapter 19:5-17 all came to pass (see Jeremiah 46 and Ezekiel 29). Verses 16-18 predict Egypt will yet be terrified by the land of Judah because of God's purpose through it against Egypt. Egypt would also be converted and delivered to participate with Israel in God's favor.
Chapter 21 gives the judgment of Babylon, Edom, and Arabia. Babylon, which was surrounded by vast systems of dykes and canals, was like a city in the sea. This chapter is a graphic announcement of its fall. The mention of Elam and Media (verse 2) points to its capture by Cyrus in 526 b.c. Dumah (verses 11 and 12) was the name of the district south of Edom and is used here for Edom, of which Seir was the central district. Arabia (verses 13-17) was the desert between Edom and Babylon. This chapter is a prediction that they will experience a terrific blow, and Sargon did invade Arabia in 716 b.c.
Chapter 22 records the judgment upon Jerusalem. Jerusalem was often called the "Valley of Vision," because the hill on which it was situated was surrounded by valleys, with higher hills beyond, and was the place where God revealed Himself. In this chapter Jerusalem is rebuked for giving itself to reckless indulgence while besieged by the Syrian army. Notice in verses 9-11 that their defense included everything possible except turning to God!
Chapter 23 covers the judgment of Tyre. Tyre is a type of the pomp and pride of the satanic world system, and was a great trading place on the Phoenician coast which all conquerors prized. It suffered terribly at the hands of the Assyrians, who had recently extended their sway over Babylon (verse 13). Its overthrow, depression for 70 years, and restoration, are predicted in verses 14-18. Isaiah foresaw the downfall of this commercial center of the world (verses 1-7). The reason for its great downfall was basically because of pride (verse 8-12). Verse 18 tells us that this great city will be sanctified in the Kingdom Age.
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